chap4solomons

chap4solomons - Chapter4 Nomenclature& Conformationsof...

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Created by Professor William Tam & Dr. Phillis Chang Ch. 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Nomenclature &  Nomenclature &  Conformations of Conformations of Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Alkanes & Cycloalkanes
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About The Authors About The Authors These Powerpoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor  William Tam and his wife Dr. Phillis Chang.   Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in  1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1995.  He was an  NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard  University (USA).  He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of  Guelph (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and  Associate Chair in the department.  Professor Tam has received several  awards in research and teaching, and according to  Essential Science  Indicators , he is currently ranked as the Top 1% most cited Chemists  worldwide.  He has published four books and over 80 scientific papers in top  international journals such as  J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem., Org. Lett.,  and  J. Org. Chem.   Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her  M.Sc. and Ph.D. in 1997 and 2001 at the University of Guelph (Canada).  She  lives in Guelph with her husband, William, and their son, Matthew. Ch. 4
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Ch. 4 - 1. Introduction to Alkanes & Cycloalkanes Alkanes and cycloalkanes  are  hydrocarbons in which all the carbon- carbon ( C–C ) bonds are single bonds Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk enes Hydrocarbons that contain C C : Alk ynes
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Ch. 4 - Alkanes:  C n H 2n+2 e.g. hexane (C 6 H 14 ) 1 2 3 6 4 5 e.g. cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) Cycloalkanes:  C n H 2n
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Ch. 4 - 1A. 1A. Sources of Alkanes:  Sources of Alkanes:  Petroleum Petroleum Petroleum  is the primary source of  alkanes.  It is a complex mixture of  mostly  alkanes  and aromatic  hydrocarbons with small amounts of  oxygen- nitrogen- , and  sulfur- containing compounds
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Ch. 4 - Distillation  is the first step in refining  petroleum.  Its components are  separated based on different  volatility More than 500 different compounds  are contained in petroleum  distillates boiling below 200 o C Petroleum  refining
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Ch. 4 - The fractions taken contain a  mixture of  alkanes  of  similar boiling  points Mixture of  alkanes  can be used as  fuels solvents , and  lubricants Petroleum  refining (Cont’d)
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Ch. 4 - The demand of  gasoline  is much  greater than that supplied by the  gasoline fraction of  petroleum Converting hydrocarbons from  other fractions of petroleum into  gasoline by “ catalytic cracking catalysts ~ 500 o
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2011 for the course CHEM 222 taught by Professor Harding during the Spring '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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chap4solomons - Chapter4 Nomenclature& Conformationsof...

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