chap10solomons

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Created by Ch. 10 - Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Radical Reactions Radical Reactions
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About The Authors About The Authors These Powerpoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor  William Tam and his wife Dr. Phillis Chang.   Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in  1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1995.  He was an  NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard  University (USA).  He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of  Guelph (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and  Associate Chair in the department.  Professor Tam has received several  awards in research and teaching, and according to  Essential Science  Indicators , he is currently ranked as the Top 1% most cited Chemists  worldwide.  He has published four books and over 80 scientific papers in top  international journals such as  J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem., Org. Lett.,  and  J. Org. Chem.   Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her  M.Sc. and Ph.D. in 1997 and 2001 at the University of Guelph (Canada).  She  lives in Guelph with her husband, William, and their son, Matthew. Ch. 10
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Ch. 10 - 1. Introduction: How Radicals Form  and How They React Heterolysis A B ions heterolytic bond cleavage + A B Homolysis A B radicals homolytic bond cleavage + A B
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Ch. 10 - 1A. 1A. Production of Radicals Production of Radicals Homolysis of covalent bonds Need heat or light (h ν ) R O O R heat R O 2 Cl Cl h ν Cl 2 (alkoxyl radical) (chlorine radical)
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Ch. 10 - 1B. 1B. Reactions of Radicals Reactions of Radicals Almost all small radicals are short- lived, highly reactive species Cl + H CH 3 Cl H + CH 3 R + C C C R C
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Ch. 10 - 1. Homolytic Bond Dissociation Energies (DH°) H + H H H Cl + Cl Cl Cl H o  =  - 436 kJ/mol H o  =  - 243 kJ/mol Bond formation is  an exothermic  process. H + H H H Cl + Cl Cl Cl H o  =  + 436 kJ/mol H o  =  + 243 kJ/mol Reactions in which  only bond breaking  occurs are always  endothermic.
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Ch. 10 - The energies required to break  covalent bonds homolytically are called  homolytic bond dissociation  energies , and they are usually  abbreviated by the symbol  DH  °
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Ch. 10 - Single-Bond Homolytic Dissociation  Energies (DH°) at 25°C Bond Broken kJ/mol H H 436 F F 159 Cl Cl 243 Br Br 193 I I 151
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Ch. 10 - Single-Bond Homolytic Dissociation  Energies (DH°) at 25°C Bond Broken kJ/mol H F 570 H Cl 432 H Br 366 H I 298
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Ch. 10 - 1 Single-Bond Homolytic Dissociation  Energies (DH°) at 25°C
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2011 for the course CHEM 222 taught by Professor Harding during the Spring '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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chap10solomons - Chapter10 RadicalReactions Createdby

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