chap12solomons

chap12solomons - Alcoholsfrom CarbonylCompounds Chapter12...

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Created by Ch. 12 - Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Alcohols from Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds Carbonyl Compounds Organometallic Organometallic Compounds Compounds
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Ch. 12 - About The Authors About The Authors These PowerPoint Lecture Slides were created and prepared by Professor  William Tam and his wife, Dr. Phillis Chang.   Professor William Tam received his B.Sc. at the University of Hong Kong in  1990 and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto (Canada) in 1995.  He was an  NSERC postdoctoral fellow at the Imperial College (UK) and at Harvard  University (USA).  He joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of  Guelph (Ontario, Canada) in 1998 and is currently a Full Professor and  Associate Chair in the department.  Professor Tam has received several  awards in research and teaching, and according to  Essential Science  Indicators , he is currently ranked as the Top 1% most cited Chemists  worldwide.  He has published four books and over 80 scientific papers in top  international journals such as  J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem., Org. Lett.,  and  J. Org. Chem.   Dr. Phillis Chang received her B.Sc. at New York University (USA) in 1994, her  M.Sc. and Ph.D. in 1997 and 2001 at the University of Guelph (Canada).  She  lives in Guelph with her husband, William, and their son, Matthew.
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Ch. 12 - O 1. Structure of the Carbonyl Group Carbonyl compounds O R H Aldehyde Ketone O R R' Carboxylic acid O R OH Ester O R OR' Amide O R N R' R"
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Ch. 12 - Structure O C ~ 120 o ~ 120 o ~ 120 o Carbonyl carbon:   sp 2  hybridized
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Ch. 12 - Polarization and resonance structure O C O C δ - δ +
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Ch. 12 - 1A. 1A. Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with Nucleophiles with Nucleophiles One of the most important reactions of  carbonyl compounds is  nucleophilic  addition  to the carbonyl group Nu O C δ - δ + nucleophilic addition O C Nu
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Ch. 12 - Two important nucleophiles: Hydride ions (from NaB H 4  and  LiAl H 4 ) Carbanions (from  R Li and  R MgX) Another important reactions: O C R H OH R H H oxidation reduction 1 o  alcohol aldehyde
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Ch. 12 - 1. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry Reduction  of an organic molecule usually  corresponds to increasing its hydrogen  content or decreasing its oxygen content carboxylic acid reduction [H] O R H O R O H aldehyde oxygen content decreases reduction [H] O H R H O R H H hydrogen content decreases
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The opposite reaction of reduction is  oxidation .  Increasing the oxygen  content of on organic molecule or  decreasing its hydrogen content is  
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2011 for the course CHEM 222 taught by Professor Harding during the Spring '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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chap12solomons - Alcoholsfrom CarbonylCompounds Chapter12...

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