Lab6_bacteria_Algae

Lab6_bacteria_Algae - Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Feature...

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1 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Lack those metabolic abilities (i) Anaerobic and aerobic photosynthesis (ii) Obtain energy from oxidizing inorganic compounds (iii) Fix atmospheric nitrogen Metabolic diversity Complex structure whip back and forth Single fiber of protein spins Flagella Contain nucleus and organelles No internal membrane system, no cell nucleus Internal compartmentalization Cell division and mitosis Binary fission Cell division Multiple chromosomes (DNA and proteins) Single circular DNA Chromosomes >10 times bigger ~ 1 micrometer diameter Cell size Unicellular / multicellular Single-celled (form filaments) Unicellularity Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Feature Three domains of life Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea form two of the three domains of the tree of life. • The third domain is Eukarya.
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2 • Domain Archaea includes kingdom Archaebacteria • Domain Bacteria includes kingdom Bacteria • Domain Eukarya includes kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia Three domains of organisms Characteristics of Bacteria, Archaea & Eukarya
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3 Survey of Bacteria Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Bacteria Exercise 24 Bacteria and Archaea Bacteria – Have cell walls made of peptidoglycan, plasma membranes similar to those of eukaryotes, and distinct ribosomes and RNA polymerase. Archaea – Have call walls made of polysaccharides, unique plasma membranes, and ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to those of eukaryotes. • Bacteria and Archaea are diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous. • Most of microbes (microscopic organisms) are bacteria or archaea.
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4 Asexual reproduction: fission • All bacteria and archaea are haploid. • Reproduction by fission the splitting of a cell into two daughter cells. • The cell’s DNA replicates and the cell pinches in half. Conjugation • Bacterial have genetic recombination via conjugation. • Bacterial cells can transfer copies of plasmids , extracellular loops of DNA. • When conjugation (the act of joining) occurs, a copy of a plasmid (and potentially one or more genes from the main bacterial chromosome) moves from one cell to a recipient cell. •The conjugation tube forms between cells that are transferring and receiving a plasmid.
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5 Kingdom Bacteria • Heterotrophic – derive energy from organic molecules made by other organisms. • Autotrophic – derive energy from photosynthesis or the oxidation of inorganic molecules. • Most bacteria are heterotrophic. • Heterotrophic bacteria are decomposers because they feed on dead organic matter and release nutrients locked in dead tissue. • Some bacteria are autotrophic using a different photosynthesis mechanism from that in eukaryotes. – By-product of sulfur vs. oxygen Diversification of Bacteria and Archaea • Over the past 3.4 billion years, Bacteria and Archaea have diversified into hundreds of thousands of distinct species. • Morphological Diversity
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Lab6_bacteria_Algae - Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Feature...

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