guide_apa - Guide to APA Style PART ONE: CITING SOURCES IN...

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PART ONE: CITING SOURCES IN YOUR ESSAY 1. WHEN THE AUTHOR IS MENTIONED IN THE TEXT If you mention the name of the author in text, simply place the year her work was published in parentheses immediately after her name. For example: Herrick (1999) argued that college testing was biased against minorities. 2. WHEN THE AUTHOR ISN'T MENTIONED IN THE TEXT If you don't mention the author's name in the text, then include that information parenthetically. For example: A New Hampshire political scientist (Bloom, 1992) recently studied the state's presidential primary. Note that the author's name and the year of her work are separated by a comma. 3. WHEN TO CITE PAGE NUMBERS If the information you're citing came from specific pages (or chapters or sections) of a source, that information may also be included in the parenthetical citation. Including page numbers is essential when quoting a source. For example: The first stage of language acquisition is called "caretaker speech" (Moskowitz, 1985, pp. 5051), in which children model their parents' language. The same passage might also be cited this way if the authority's name is mentioned in the text: Moskowitz (1985) observed that the first stage of language acquisition is called "caretaker speech" (pp. 5051), in which children model their parents' language. 4. HOW TO CITE TWO OR MORE AUTHORS When a work has two authors, always mention them both whenever you cite their work in your paper. For example: Allen and Oliver (1998) observed many cases of child abuse and concluded that maltreatment inhibited language development. If a source has more than two authors but less than six, mention them all the first time you refer to their work. However, any subsequent references can include the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation et al. When citing works with more than six authors, always use the first author's surname and et al. 5. HOW TO CITE A WORK WITH NO AUTHOR When a work has no author, cite an abbreviated title and the year. Place article or chapter titles in quotation marks, and underline book titles. For example: The editorial ("Sinking," 1992) concluded that the EPA was mired in bureaucratic muck. 6. HOW TO CITE TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR Works by the same author are usually distinguished by the date; works are rarely published the same year. But if they are, distinguish among works by adding an a or b immediately following the year in the parenthetical citation. The reference list will also have these suffixes. For example: Douglas's studies (1986a) on the mating habits of lobsters revealed that the females are dominant. He also found that the female lobsters have the uncanny ability to smell a loser (1986b). This citation alerts readers that the information came from two studies by Douglas, both published in 1986.
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2011 for the course EG 1413 taught by Professor Prof during the Spring '11 term at National University of Singapore.

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guide_apa - Guide to APA Style PART ONE: CITING SOURCES IN...

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