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January 17 - • Eukaryotes Eukaryota • Animal Cell o...

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January 17 Sodium potassium pump: active transport, working against concentration gradient o Sodium goes out and potassium ions come in o ATP is used by enzymes to pump out sodium Diffusion: passive movement along an electrochemical gradient, through a membrane or channel Facilitated diffusion: not on test Negative charge inside membrane but positive outside membrane Gramicidin facilitates diffusion of cations along an electrochemical gradient o Interior is hydrophilic and exterior is hydrophobic Cystic Fibrosis: caused because certain proteins can’t go into membrane o Thick mucus in lungs o Pancreatic glands become clogged o Inadequate digestive enzymes o Reproductive ducts become blocked o Sweat glands fail to reabsorb salt TEST IS UP TO HERE Look at chart at the end of Ch. 7 Prokaryotes: bacteria, Archaea o Don’t have a nucleus that’s enclosed in a membrane
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Unformatted text preview: • Eukaryotes: Eukaryota • Animal Cell: o Lysosome: garbage can of the cell, take out older mitochondria and make interior of cell acidic o Nucleus: what contains the chromatin, double membrane Nucleolus- blob in middle of nucleus, ribosomes (make protein) made here • Can be different sizes depending on how much protein needs to be made Nuclear Pores: allow certain substances to get in and out Membrane is continues n into endoplasmic reticulum • ER with ribosomes= Rough ER • Without ribosomes= Smooth ER, makes lipids (makes membranes), stores calcium, detoxifies toxins Golgi Apparatus: “stack of pancakes”, vesicles form from rough ER through golgi to transport proteins, by the end protein is almost mature • Plant Cell: o Chloroplast: photosynthesis goes on here o Cytosol: some proteins made here...
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