Chapters 21, 22, and 23
Part I – Definitions
Define each of these 15 words, explaining what it is and how it pertains specifically
to American history.
With the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore
Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He
brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress
and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy.
Treaty of Paris Debate:
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 20 December 1898,
and the United States, ended one war and set the stage for another.
Following the U.S. military victories at
in May 1898 and in
July, Madrid asked for an armistice that began in August. Peace negotiations followed
in Paris, the main sticking point being the future of the
The progressives were people who participated on The
, which was an effort to cure many of the ills of American
society that had developed during the great spurt of industrial growth in the last quarter
of the 19th century.
: "Trust-Busting," a term that referred to President Theodore
Roosevelt's policy of prosecuting monopolies, or "trusts," that violated federal
. Roosevelt's "trust-busting" policy marked a major departure from previous
administrations' policies, which had generally failed to enforce the
of 1890, and added momentum to the progressive reform movements of the early
The Square Deal:
Term used by Pres.
to describe his
approach to social problems. It embraced his idealistic view of labour, citizenship,
parenthood, and Christian ethics. He first used the term after the settlement of a mining
strike in 1902 to describe the ideal of peaceful coexistence between big business and
labour unions. The concept became part of the
Bull Moose Party
Roosevelt became its candidate in 1912.
Muckrakers were a group of writers, including the likes of Upton
Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, and Ida Tarbell, during the Progressive era who tried to
expose the problems that existed in American society as a result of the rise of big
business, urbanization, and immigration. Most of the muckrakers were journalists.
The Niagara Movement:
In 1905, W.E.B. Du Bois, a professor at Atlanta
University, exasperated by Booker T. Washington's continued conciliatory policies
towards whites and his enormous power within the black community, called for a
meeting of Washington's critics of at Niagara Falls, New York. The purpose of the
meeting was to form an organization that would offer a militant alternative to