Chemical Bonding revised

Chemical Bonding revised - Unit2:Bonding Overview...

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Unit 2: Bonding
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Overview Covalent Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding Electronegativity Molecular Shape Polarity Ionic Crystals Network Solids Intermolecular Forces
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Covalent Bonding Bonds between atoms are formed through  the sharing of electrons Covalent bonds form between two non- metal atoms through sharing of pairs of  electrons Atoms have a “desire” to have their outer  energy levels filled (Octet Rule) Covalent bonding can be represented with  Lewis Dot Diagrams
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Lewis Dot Diagrams Lewis Dot Diagrams show the sharing of  electrons between atoms and where the  bonds form atoms share electrons to fill their outer  energy levels (8 electrons in their outer  shell) The exception is hydrogen (2 electrons in  its outer shell)
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Lewis Dot Diagrams for Hydrogen and Chlorine  Gas The first row shows the atoms before they are bonded The second row shows the sharing of electrons to fill the outer  energy level The third row has circles around the electrons  to show those that  belong to each atom. Where the circles overlap  represents a  covalent bond
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Multiple Bonds Double and triple bonds can form between  atoms in order to fill the outer energy level This occurs when two atoms share more  than one pair of electrons
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Multiple Lewis Structures Some molecules can have more than one  possible Lewis structure, usually when one  single bond and one double bond can be  exchanged within the rules of drawing  Lewis structures Example of SO 2  (g)
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Structural Diagrams Lewis Diagrams can be converted to  structural diagrams for convenience Structural diagrams use lines to represent  a bond, or a pair of electrons, but it does  not show lone electron pairs Example: Chlorine Gas
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Lewis Dot Diagram Worksheet Using the rules for drawing Lewis dot  diagrams, complete the worksheet (LDD  and structural) For extra practice, try the Lewis Structures  Thought Lab
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Stereochemistry – The Structures  of Molecular Compounds So far we have seen molecules  represented in 2-D However, molecules are actually 3  dimensional To predict 3 dimensional molecular  shapes we use VSEPR theory (Valence- Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion) Based on the electrostatic repulsion of  electron pairs
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Note that the repulsion force is strongest  between two lone pairs and the weakest  between two bonded pairs, and the  repulsion between a lone pair and a  bonded pair is intermediate We apply the VSEPR theory to a central  atom that has an octet of electrons in its  valence shell, and there are three  categories of shapes; linear, trigonal 
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Chemical Bonding revised - Unit2:Bonding Overview...

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