Surrogacy and Surplus: The Exploitation of Poor Women in Developing CountriesTerm PaperSOC 300: Sociological TheoryTa’Reese WomackChristina McClendonKa’juan Warren
Problem FormulationSurrogacy produces surplus for the entire reproductive industry. The study is warranted because of the exploitation of poor women in developing countries. Researching surrogacy and surplus is important because it is and has been a leading mode of production to produce babies for people that can’t have them. Companies are going in agreement with lower class working wage women and are exploiting then in exchange of the gift life for a profit gain, but in the end the woman is the one who is losing while the company is gaining.Representation/VisualizationBailey (2009) data shows that women in the United States are paid significantly more than women in India for having a child through assisted reproductive technology. The researchers (Hubar, Karandikar, and Gezinski 2017) from Ohio State University’s College of Social Work observed that women in India are encouraged to become surrogates if they live below the poverty line and are paid $3,000-$5,000 USD even though the Indian surrogacy industry has become a $2.3 billion a year business (Shetty, 2012). On the other hand, in the United States it is illegal for a woman below the poverty line to be a surrogate, but the ones who aren’t below the line are paid $20,000-$55,000.
InterpretationKarl Marx emphasized that the rise of capitalism started when the economy evolved fromAsiatic to early capitalism. Capitalist separated the people from means of production and man from nature by using subordination and taking possession of the people’s land. Max Weber also believed that class divisions obtained from the means of production, but also from access to resources which affects individual positions in the labor market. It all comes down to money. Capitalist produced commodities by introducing machinery that increased production for manufacture goods which has caused the people to become exploited and short changed while capitalists were making a profit. Since commodity disguise the origin of private labor, people areunaware that they are purchasing products that was produced from an exploited circumstance. Commercial Surrogacy is an example of capitalism. The surrogacy industry is accumulating surplus value through privatization, commodification and exploitation. Commercial Surrogacy is a transnational enterprise, which means that this hugely profitable business has found ways to make more money than they already possess by “outsourcing the womb” and extending their operations internationally. Through globalization, commercial surrogacy migrated to a less economically developed country to bring biotechnologyand money that they feel will “benefit” the country that's undeveloped. Rationalization has also played a role in capitalism which was the creation of bureaucracy. Rationalization is shown to have a negative and dehumanizing effect on society. This globalization has caused India to become a reproductive tourism for the western culture.