6_Metamorphic Rocks - Chapter 7, 9: Sedimentary and...

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Sedimentary Rocks (continued) Clastic sediments Chemical sediments (carbonates, evaporites) Metamorphic rocks What is metamorphism? Ingredients of metamorphism Styles of metamorphism Common metamorphic rocks Chapter 7, 9: Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks Next lecture: Chapter 11
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Recycling granite to become clastic sedimentary rock Original granite material weathering product sedimentary rock “whole rock” conglomerate quartz sandstone Diagenesis : changes that occur in sediment after deposition (making sediment into sedimentary rock). feldspar-rich sand- stone (arkose) Examples: compaction, cementation, dissolution. feldspar crystals loose sand feldspar crystals mudrock, shale clay minerals quartz crystals loose sand Images are photomicrographs of loose sediment (left), and sediment that has been cemented to become sedimentary rock (center, right) through processes of diagenesis. Blue in the right-hand photo is epoxy that was forced into pore spaces. Diagenesis includes introduction of cement (addition of material), or it may include dissolution (removal of material), which creates porosity. Note that clastic particles may be rounded (left-hand photo) or angular (center, right-hand photos).
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Sedimentary Rocks (continued) Clastic sediments Chemical sediments (carbonates, evaporites) Metamorphic rocks What is metamorphism? Ingredients of metamorphism Styles of metamorphism Common metamorphic rocks Chapter 7, 9: Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks Next lecture: Chapter 11
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Recycling igneous rock to become chemical/ biochemical sedimentary rock K feldspar, Na plagioclase Na + , K + ions in solution Original igneous mineral weathering product sedimentary rock rock salt rock salt = halite (NaCl) Ca 2+ ions in solution Ca plagioclase limestone, rock gypsum limestone = chiefly calcite (CaCO 3 ) rock gypsum = chiefly mineral gypsum = CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O Mg 2+ ions in solution ferromagnesian minerals rock dolomite rock dolomite = chiefly mineral dolomite = [Ca, Mg]CO 3
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http://www.nps.gov/ Limestones of El Capitan Guadalupe Mountains, West Texas Limestone can be a combination of remains of marine plants and animals, “ooze” laid down by micro-organisms, clasts, and pore filling material. Coral reefs past and present make impressive limestone deposits.
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6_Metamorphic Rocks - Chapter 7, 9: Sedimentary and...

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