22_Glaciers - Ice Special properties of water Ice as a...

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Unformatted text preview: Ice Special properties of water Ice as a mineral Glaciers Profile of a glacier Ice as a metamorphic rock Glacial processes and landforms Erosion Deposition Chapter 24: Ice and Glaciers Next lecture: Ice Ages and Climate At its maximum about 20 thousand years ago, an ice sheet covered most of Canada and part of the northernmost U. S. Today in the Northern Hemisphere an extensive ice sheet covers only Greenland. Ice Special properties of water Ice as a mineral Glaciers Profile of a glacier Ice as a metamorphic rock Glacial processes and landforms Erosion Deposition Chapter 24: Ice and Glaciers Next lecture: Oil! Density of Water and Ice 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1.01 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature (°C) Density (g/cm³) water ice H 2 O is a very unusual substance in many ways. It is one of the only substances that is denser in the liquid phase than the solid, which is why ice floats. This is because of its extremely open crystal structure. Water is most dense at about 4 °C, which is why ice forms on top of water. A thin, delicate snowflake matures on the surface of a glacier, transforming into a compact grain, the ingredient of “old snow,” or firn. This is the first stage of creating glacier ice. As glacier ice continues to metamorphose, tiny interlocking crystals become larger, just as mineral grains in a rock increase in size during metamorphism. A pocket knife provides the size scale of ice crystals in an old, mature glacier such as the Malaspina Glacier, Alaska. A close-up of ice at the Exit Glacier on the Kenai peninsula in Alaska shows large crystals and trapped air bubbles and sediment Large crystals help give glacier ice its beautiful blue color. H 2 O naturally absorbs red light, but it takes a lot of volume to do it, and crystal faces tend to reflect light back. Ice Special properties of water...
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22_Glaciers - Ice Special properties of water Ice as a...

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