Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders

Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders - Chapter 12:...

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schizophrenia: a psychological disorder characterized by profoundly disturbed thought - atypical behavior is considered abnormal when it deviates from cultural norms - context may contribute to whether a behavior is abnormal or not (woman needs to wash her hand 4 times an hour if she works in a lab with toxic chemicals) - when abnormal behavior persists, it can lead to diagnosis of a psychological disorder - abnormal behavior: behavior that is deviant (atypical or statistically unusual/woman he washes her hand 4 times an hour), maladaptive (interferes with one's ability to function effectively in the world/man who thinks breathing can endanger others may isolate himself), or personally distressful (troubling/woman makes herself throw up after every meal feels shame) over a relatively long period of time - medical model: the view that disorders are medical disease with a biological origin (abnormalities are called illnesses, afflicted individuals are called patients, who are treated by doctors) - biological approach: disorders due to organic, internal causes; focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning - focus on influence of childhood experiences, personality traits, learning experiences, or cognitions - psychological approach: emphasizes the contributions of experiences, thoughts, emotions, and personality characteristics in explaining disorders - stresses the ways that cultures influence the understanding and treatment of disorders (ex. anorexia occurs in Western cultures) - sociocultural approach: emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family relationships, and culture (ex. poverty is related to rates of disorders) - biopsychosocial model: biological, psychological, and social factors are all significant ingredients in producing both normal and abnormal behavior; they may combine in unique ways so that people may differ from another in terms of key factors associated with the development of a disorder - stigma: mark of shame that may cause others to avoid or to act negatively toward an individual (from officially naming a problem) - reflects the medical model - axis I: all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation - axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation - axis III: general medical conditions - axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems - axis V: current level of functioning - classifies individuals on the basis of five axes (dimensions) that take into account the individual's history and highest level of functioning in the previous year - DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders): the major classification of psychological disorders in the US - ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder): most common disorder of childhood, in which individuals show one or more of the following: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity - 12.1 Defining and Explaining Abnormal Behavior etiology: causes or significant preceding conditions
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2011 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders - Chapter 12:...

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