Chapter 13 Therapies - Chapter 13: Therapies Tuesday,...

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biological therapies (biomedical therapies): treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning - used mainly in anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia - drug therapy = most common form of biomedical therapy - antianxiety drugs: (tranquilizers) reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable - side effects: drowsiness, loss of coordination, fatigue, mental slowing, abnormalities in babies - Benzodiazepines offer the greatest relief; ex. Xanax, Valium, Librium-- work by binding to the receptor sites of neurotransmitters that become overactive during anxiety - antidepressant drugs: regulate mood through their effects on neurotransmitters in the brain - main classes: tricyclics (i.e. Elavil), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (i.e. Nardil), and (SSRIs) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (i.e. Prozac) - side effects: restlessness, faintness, trembling, sleepiness, memory difficulties - tricyclics: three-ringed molecular structure; increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin - side effects: can raise blood pressure and cause strokes - MAO inhibitors: block enzyme monoamine oxidase, which breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain; helps them stick around and regulate mood - ex. Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft - side effects: insomnia, anxiety, headache, diarrhea, withdrawal symptoms - SSRIs: target serotonin and work mainly by interfering with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain - antidepressant drugs are often effective for a number of anxiety and eating disorders - side effects: kidney and thyroid gland complications, weight gain - lithium: lightest of the solid elements, widely used to treat bipolar disorder; stabilizes moods by influencing norepinephrine and serotonin - antipsychotic drugs: powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia - side effects: lack of pleasure, tardive dyskinesia : a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and mouth, as well as extensive twitching of the neck, arms, and legs - neuroleptics: most extensively used antipsychotic drug; reduce schizophrenic symptoms by blocking dopamine's action in the brain - ex. Clozaril and Risperdal: reduce schizophrenia's symptoms without the side effects of neuroleptics - antipsychotic medications: newer antipsychotic drugs that influence dopamine and serotonin - a small electric current lasting for one second or less passes through two electrodes placed on the individual's head; the current excites neural tissue, stimulating a seizure that lasts for approx. a minute - applied only to the brain's right side - can produce rapid relief in a person's mood - side effects: memory loss, other cognitive impairments (lessened if only one side of the brain is stimulated) - electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): (shock therapy) a treatment commonly used for depression that
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2011 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 13 Therapies - Chapter 13: Therapies Tuesday,...

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