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PSYCHOLOGY TEST #1 REVIEW psychology: the study of behavior and mental processes processes of psych studies: critical thinking, curiosity, skepticism, objectivity founders of psych:  Wundt: first psych lab structuralism: focus on identifying structures of the human mind James: functionalism:  focus on the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in individual's adaptation to the environment Darwin:  natural selection natural flow of thought:  stream of consciousness 7 approaches to psych: behavioral, biological, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, evolutionary, sociocultural biological approach: focus on the body, esp. brain and nervous system behavioral approach: focus on observable behavioral responses and thier determinants (Watson and Skinner) psychodynamic approach:  focus on unconscious thought, conflict between biological drives and society's demands, and early childhood experiences humanistic:  focus on person's positive qualities, capacity for growth, and freedom to choose one's destiny cognitive approach: focus on the mental processes involved in knowing how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think. and solve problems evolutionary approach: focus on evolutionary ideas on basis for explaining human behaviors sociocultural approach:  focus on ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior
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scientific method: oberserve phenomenon, formulate hypothesis and predictions, test through research, draw conclusions, evaluate conclusions 3 types of research used in psych:  descriptive, correlational, experimental descriptive research:  finding out about basic dimensions of a varible correlational research: discovering the relationship between two variables experimental research: determining the casual (cause-and-effect) relationship between variables case study:  study of a specific case regarding an issue; gives sense of what might happen for all longitudial research: experiments done in a wave over a period of time; to gain reliability/validity independent variable: variable that is manipulated to see if it produces changes in the dependent variable population:  group to which results of an experiment are generalized sample:  subset of the population random sample: the best way to ensure sample reflects population naturalistic setting:  gives truer sense of behavior; real-world setting laboratory setting:  allows for control informed consent:  all participants must know what their participation will involve and what risks it might develop confidentiality: researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential and anonymous when possible debriefing: after study is completed, researchers should inform the participants of its purpose and the methods they used use of deception: 
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