Answers_to_Chapter_6_Problems

Answers_to_Chapter_6_Problems - Ennrept Mapping 25 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Ennrept Mapping 25. 1 . periodic table; 2. electron con‘figu ration; 3. periodic trends; 4.—?. electronegatiyity, ionic radius, atomic radius, ionization energy Mastering Ennrepts 25. 2?. 28. 29. 3'0. 31'. 32. 33. 34. 35. 35. 3?. I'tttendeleev.r used atomic mass instead of atomic number to order the elements. This resulted in some elements being out of order. Moseley used atomic num her. Newlands introduced the idea of periodically repeating properties. Mendeleefs worlc was published first, he did more to show periodic trends, and he predicted proper- ties of several yet-to—be— discovered elemenfi. The element were arranged by increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties. When the elements are arranged by ino'easing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties. a. nonmetal d.metal b. metal E. nonmetal c. metalloid 1'. metal Metals are generally dense, solid, shiny, ductile, malleable, and good conductors of heat and electricity. a.2.'b.4.'c. 3.1.1 a. rep.; h. reps r. rep..' rt. trans; e. rep..' f. trans. See the Solutions Manual ‘for a sample table. properties describe a metal; left of the stair step line Metalloids haye properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals. {3, 5i. Ge. As. Sb, Te, Po, we are metalloids. I34 Go to the Chemistth I-i-t'eb .tit'e or dignity-mam for additional Chapter IS Assessment. Concept Mapplng :5.C‘omplete dlecortcept map using the following terms: elecb'oregatitity.elccu'on configuration periodic u'erlls. ionic radius. atomic radius. imitation enetgy. and peri- otic table. 1 | 2 | s. I—I—l—I—I a. s. a 't'. Masterlng Concepts :15. Explain bEI'tl.‘ htendeleet‘s periodic table was in error. How was dis error lired? rs. Ii Explain the contribution of Newlaods's law of octa'res to the development of1l:e mddem periodic table. lat] Gonna chemist Lothar Meyerand Russian chemist Dmiu'i Mendeleer both prrposed similar periodic tables in ISE‘J. Why is hiendelee'r germmlly given credit for the periodic tahle'.J {5.11 How was Merlleleer's periodic table organized? fol] What is the periodic law? [6.11 identify each od'the following as a metal. nonmetal. or metalloid. in I} a. osygen b. barium r. germanium 2'}. an. :I. iron e. neon f. praser-dyrninm 32. Describe due general chnbenstdcs of metals. [all 33. Match each numbered item on the right with due let- tered item that itis related to on the left. I61} a. alkali netals t. grep EA. b. halogens 2. grep lit. r. alkaline eanh metals 3. gonp 1A. d. noble gases 4. grep Li. 1" Chapter 6 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law 38. The line separates metals from non meta Is. Most elements bordering the line are metalloids. .355 so 4'! . E . Irhrttifyeacb ofthe elen'ents in problem 3| as a repre- sentative eIenent or a transiu'on eIe-rrert. {a I} . .Slcetch asimplil'ied periodic table and use labels to identily the alkaIi metals. alkalire ea.th n'etals. touts]- 1ion metals. inner transition metals. noble gases. and halogens. f6.” . A. shiny solid eIerrent alsois dn:1iIe. Whit aim ot'1l:e periodic table is it lilter Lobe l'onnd? {6L I} . What are the general properties o1'a rretalloid? Ust three n'etalloid elements. In It . What is die purpose ol the heavy stair-step line on the periodic tahle'.J [6.11 . [extibe the two types of numbering used to identify groups on the periodic table. {all . Give the chenical syntmI oleach oftdte foIIowing elen'ents. lo.” a. the two elements that are liquids at room Emperature h. Ihenoble gas with the greatest aton't'l: mass c. any metal lrom group an at. any inrer transition metal . WhyI d:- 1he elements chlorine and iodire have similar d‘IEITiCiJl properties? [61.2] How are the numbers of valence electrons oftlde gmup ltelements related to He gonp number'.J {5&1 . How is die eretgy leeel ol an abom's valence electrons related to the period it is in on the periodic tahle'.J [5.21 How manyyalenreelectronsdoexholll'tenoble gases lute? {5.2} . What are the [our blocks ot'1l:e periodic table? [61.21 In general. what electron configuration has die greatest staiiility? {SQ} Determine the group. period. and block in which emb oftl'e lollewirg elements is located on the periodic table. I61] a. massed- c. [l-le]312p'5 e. [menu'wa a |Ne|3513pl . Categoriee each ott'dte elements in problem 4? as a representable element or a transition metal. “5.21 . Explain how an atom's yaleore electron configuration mtermines its place on the periodic table. “321 . Write the electron corliguration for die eie-trtent fining ea:h ol Lie following descriptions. “5.11 a. the metal in group 5a b. the halogen in period 3 c.1tealkalimetalinperir-d2 eL Ihetransilion metal that is a liquid at room te-mperamre q-l chemisuyrnccenu'chapter test RESIDII I'EE Man ager Chapternssessment. pp. 31—36 m Supplemental finhlerns. Gt. 6 Ettam'lll'ie'ut-3 Fro EDrRDM Mindlogger ‘Il'ieleoquiues D'ltI'DNHS Solutions Man ual. Ch. 15 Chemistry Interactive tin-ROM.- U1. 6 quiz 51. Etpla'n wily die radius ofan atoun caonol be treated I56. HEI'W many 1l'alerlceelectrons do elenecls in each of 39. (line system uses 1A— BA for direcdy. [as] me feline-inc amps hm? {63" representative elements. 5!. Given any two elercerts within agrowp. ls deeleroerll a. gimp 3.3. and 13—33 for transition 'h‘llil Ilse larger atomic floater liker in have alacger b. grmplh or smallerch radios Elan die ollJereleneot‘? I61] I; grcup let Elements' The Ether Mam numbers the columns i—‘IB IL Whale-merits ateclflli‘letimd =5 hatinglhEiId 61. Na+ and llng+ ions each have ten electrode surround- . me]; till widtelectrons 1; you IIIJZI'II'E lefl-bo-rigilt m3 we were; Which it." mm pm mm m We left to right. mess I F'Hl'i'd? [5-11 He Hemingway? [6.3] all. a. arr Hg: in. Fin.- 54. Esplsl'n ally is itltarderto rem-re an ll'll'EE shell elec- 1:. Sn or P'll; El. elements tron than a valeree election frcm an morn. [6.3] Mlfled REVIEW 53;“ Dr gflq [)3 55. A11 element lorrie- aoegaJJIe ion when imlzed. Do . - - - a1 11-. h th . . . . Enamel-r yonrpmolem-sohuog stills bynnsn'ermg fire - 95' WE E 53”“? Efldlfiflr Wm M '5 m! em": mud? following. valence electron configura- ' ' . . . tion 5? 5 . m mm ELEM”; mmgumciiflm mmm tilt. Match ea:l:| mannered rem on me nglllwlln the let- 42 Th I: p EH! f I Is‘liicllforrns Incl-11 aidiitelarge-stradinsli'lle mmmflemmdbcmmflefl ' EMF“ “5' “a 9"“ smallest? was: periodic LIEfIietlelm this? {all i_ mph Ekmfi L pedal, electrons equals the group 51'. What is ionization eaergy'.J {s31 b.co1u.1'clis I. rep1ese11tati'reeleroeres number for group A an. EIplairI ally eacll soecessiye ionization ot'an eleclson ramp 3 Elm 3‘ W95. 2'! Elem Ems- requ'Ir-zs a greater mm flier-Her. {I33} '_ _ _ ‘f “'5'” “a? 413. The energy level of a n so. moat. groep has ite highest ionization esergies'l 59* “Mb “mm” 91:" PW“ m E“l”'“mlilallilll'”? atom's valence electrons Elem" "-11?- IE-il 3— 1H! equals its period number. fie- WIDE N110“ “5-33 a: M. All noble gases have eight EL How firm the ME radius '3': WEI WHIP“ With '. . . . valence electrons, except “5 mum-c mil“? Elfin“ why LT! (may i1 ram-"5 7G. Explain why the s-blocl penodic is two for helium which has mg mm {5L3} gmprswsde. die p—hlcct 15 so gnaups aide. 21d ded- 45 5- d Ehdf block - 5!. Etplain ally atomic ralii decrease as you some lelt- bbxk '5 ten mp5 Hi?" I ' phrfi _' _ . Dwight arms; 3 Pedal [.531 H. Arrange Ilse eleoeols oaygen. sullnr. telliniurn. rid 45- "TS'THF' r “ll-mm "‘ is the “l Wh almmifl uh in." has I“! jwrimiflfim selenium L11 order of imieasing alon1lc radii. Is your energy level ecesgy? [E31 “"1” 1” flmldlflmw “mi” “Him “9””? 4?. a. 3B, period '5, d-bloclt EL u H 1:. identify Ilse elenenls will: die Following valenceelec— b. SAr period 4; p_bloclc h it NE “‘15 Tmrlsmmf- 3 I c. EA, period A p-bloclc r. C‘s. Li 3- 5, '- 5 d. its period 3 p—bloclt 64: Elehinltflettflflllt- “5-33 Fifi-5d: Aida“?! _ ill. a. trans. metal It. rep. es. Use Ilse illustralim ol' spiel-eth and I3 to answerexll 13‘ “Mb Um” Emlmlmg '5 n 1mm" my mm: I1. rep. (I. rep_ 55. 56. 5?. 53. oflle following questions. Etplain ycur reasoning EDI e:I:l:I answer. {:53} a.lfAisanioI1mI:lBissnatomolLtesaneele— necl..is the inn aposiiiye or regatis'e ion? 74. Explain why there it! no oblock elements in tile first '5. identify each cfde following as an alkali metal. alba- raclii inn-ease as you mote down a group? a. shielding ot'inrerelecieore ls. talecce electrons in large: orbitals 1'. increased clitge in Ltleoucleus 49. Elements in a given column have the same number of valence electrons. The energy level of an atom's valence electrons deter- mines its period. ED. 3. Bi: [Ke]fis"4t"5d"3'-E-p3 period oftlle cesiodic table. line earth netal. transition roetal. or incer transition rretal. s. Irena a represent the alnmic radii ol' twoele- a. cesium cl.yl:lecl:liun1. '3'" El: “9135?? dents in me sane cesiod. wlutis Heir correct ls. :Jrconium e. umiuso 'l'u l-l 3 “49125 order Ilefi-to—rigiill? 1'. gold 1. Traitiarn cl. i-lg: ixe]fia=4f "5:!" r. Item-:1 B represeot the ionic sadii cd'two elerreols inttesanegroup. aliasis Ineirconectordecfbop- Ila-bottom“! the nucleus by attractive electrostatic forces. Elements on the right side of ll'le periodic table gain electrons to gain a stable octet. Eai' is the largest; lul'lg2 ' is the smallest ionic size increases down a group. ionization energy is the energy needed to remove an electron from a neutral atom in ii: gaseous state. With each removed electron, there 76. fimeLe-roemis ahritile solid tiredoes not concllrt 51. because the boundaries of an atom are indistinct 52. larger 53. transition metals 54. There are fewer shielding electrons between inner electrons and the nucleus. Thus, the inner electrons are more lightly bound to electricity well. Is Heelernent a metaL nonmetal. or neiallcliril'.J Assannent "5 are fewer electrons to shield the remaining electrons from the electro- static force of attraction of the nucleus. The increased nuclear attrac- tion makes it more difficult to remove subsequent electrons. 59. The group BA elemenls have the highest ionization energies because their electron configurations are the most stable. ED. An ion is an atom or a bonded group Hatinmal Elias-ice Content Standards Pages fill—HS UCPJ. UCFLZ. UCRS: 3.1. El; E1: {3.2. (5.3 1H of atoms with a positive or 11-" “king Crltlca"? negative charge. . . 51 Th? ionic radius of a 11'. hill-peeling Ila‘ta lElven the I'ollowing ditto :ibotiatc ' _ _ an :uorn's ionization energies. predicl ils vsiJence e - "Unmfitfll '5 la “JET thfl n '13 hon configufliion. Explain your iensoning. neutral atom. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons in the atom's current energy level; these additional elec- trons repel each other and increase the size of the ion. El. Atomic radii decrease no. Hing Hill Ilshg Graphs T'hedeeisities ol' lbe group 5A ele I'EEflB die given in die table above. Plot lEfi'to'rlg ht because the densit}.I versus atomic niilitlerond sue 2111i Lands nuclear charge increases as m. Ifillyi'lg cowl: Sodium ion-id e l+ ion. while you observe. 1|“; shielding of inner (on! Iluorine forms a 1— ion 'i'li'Irite lJie electron configura- electrons remains constant. "'3" r” “‘h “1' my dual "3” “"3 Elam” rm wrlflng In Chen‘lflry 2+ and 2— ions. respectively? 79. turn-fling Data The melting points ol' the period 6 elemerls are plotted ire-isus mono: nurriJer l:|1 to The increased attraction of the nucleus For its electrons 31. L11 line early 13005. German-chemist]. 'li'r'. Dotereiner proposed 1hx| son-e elemenls could be classified into eullsthe electrons imam. seem-need. deem intends-Witt; melee-em efl=.-Rmmedwfiemm . _ . _ . . onDobemiiierstnsds.'|i|rliisdelerrieeils cornprlsedlhe resulting In a decreased porn 11]. analyzing die mph and one name] cond'igtim- . . I. . . _ . . mfls?waerelJiepropertresoTelernen1.s-Aiduno atomic Sl-IE uonsol'lbe elemenls. Forrn 1113FIZIJTESIS1l‘fll explains mil Sim—hr? 53 h _ _ dield'erhis.tHii:it:l.11E'terterS.ycli iemeddmiielr- '_ _ _ ' 'a' N“ _' NE' :' Ll _ I'Illadsedsoforbitnlsm'emmstohledmodurcmflg— “1 Elm" 3mm?“ mat-P9110“? WIN-me 54. The ns‘npE electron contig- mums gfpm'LindF filled orhiuisji Ehfiefih- Rimh Emil-"ME =1 We Del-"hill Elem" “ration! knwn E's-the efl'iruty ismfldescritensgrceipundpenod trends octet confi uration, Melting Points of the Pound ti Elements . .9 . . . . . . . Cumulative Review contains eight electrons deli] and generally has the amp Refiesi’i your undrrstnnding efpre'i'ie-lrs chooser: by lowest energy and is the H “mm” m-fi’lltmflg- most stable- M'Dms 95”? in. Celine mutter. Idenljfy wiledrer or on e-Ifll oi do lol- lose, or share electrons In E lo‘tv'mg is :1 form od'lmtter. I'C‘hapter 1': order to obtain the stable E 1E1] a. mk'ro'tvm'es octet configuration. 3 fl h. heliurn inside a balloon 55. a. The ion is negative. A E fl :- Eréclflm “'9 5”" negative iorii is always 2 m E 1 5pm.: or dust larger than its atom. god f. iheeolor l:|l1.|l! b' A '5 to the lEfi '2'": m B4. lIZ'onvert 1he Tolln‘tv'mg moss unsure-roams as indi- EL Atomic radius in a coiled. {Chapter 21 period decreases lett- a. 1.] cm to rnetess tg_r|'g 10‘] h. TEL! p11: to millimeters . . . ss n :3 rs Tr to :51 as as or L H H mm; c. is beloii't.r B. Ionic radius hm“ “mm. d— 123 WWW increases down a group. . . . . HE E h 3_ 1 m. How is die enemy of: quantum olenii1ted radiation - 3- I! - 'c- _ ieieiedtoiheimqueocyorihemdieiieoeic‘iiepieis: 6?" Na has The larger radlus' as. Win: element bus the ground-state electron corl'lguru- The greater nuclear charge um or “flue”? {.3111le 51 of lii'lg2| produces an '"crEfl'SEd '“Wflrd F"-'” '5'” '13 175 Chapter 5 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law ten electrons and results in a smaller radius. _ _ three p orbitals, which hold a T4. The p orbital does not exist for energy MIKEd REVIEW maximum of six electrons. The d-bloclt level 1. The first energy level consists 58. a. 2; lo. 3; c. 4; d. 1 represents the filling of the live Cl only of a single s orbital that holds a 59. a. As ; h. N; c. Be erhitElS.whid1 held a maximum 01: maximum of two electrons. TD. The 5 block represents the ten ElE-CtrDhS. T5. 3. alkali metal; I). transition metal; tilling of the s orbital, T1. The erder is G. 5. Se; and Te. This is an c. transition metal; cl. transition metal; which holds a maximum of exam ple ef B group trend. 2. inner transition metal; f. alkali metal two electrons. The p—bloclc 72. a. Rh; h. Ti; £- l'v'lg; d. AS T6. The element is most lilter a nonmetal. represents the filling of the 73- C ITE Use these giant-Horas and rite rear-rating rip trrprepure jar your .t'rundaniiwti ten. 1. Periodic lentI states thatelemnts show a a. mpetilion ol'flir physical propenjes when ananged 11y increasing atorrtic radius. It. mpetilion ol'flir chemical properties stun ananged 11y increasing atorrtic mass. L pe-rioti: repetition ofdizir properties when arranged 11y increasing atorrtic number. cl. perioti: repetition ol'dieir properties sewn arranged 11y increasing atorrtic mass. 2. Eilemcnls in the same group ofdte periodic table have the same a. meter oft'alenze electrons. It. physiral properties. L number ofelectrons. cl. electron configuration It. All ofdie I'ollon'ing are Lrue EXEEUF‘T a. atoni- radius of Ma r. atorrtic radius ol' Mg. It. electronegatit'ity ofC' } electrmgati'rity o1 B. L ionic radius ol' Br .5 aboard: radius of Er. cl. first ionisation erergy ol' K a first ionization energy of R11. IL Which ofdte following is NUT true ol'an atom obey- ing HI! octet rule? a. obtains a full set ot'eiglt 1i'alence electrons It. :L'quims L11e 1i'alence configuration of a noble gas L possesses eiglc ehclsoris in total II. has a slpli valence conl'lgurallm 5. What is 1.11: group. period. and block ol an atom with the electron configuration IhrldsIIldLD-l-p“? a. group M. period :1. d-bloct It. group on. period 3. p—bloct L group st. period :11. p—bloct cl. group Eta. period :11. p—bloct 6. Moving down a group on m periodic law. which ttto atomic properties [IZIIIEI'W the sarre trend? 3. atomic rains and ionisation energy '1. ionic radius and alomic radius L ionization energy and ioni: radius d. ionic radius and electronegau'r'ity Interpreting Tables Us: the periodic table and the Lahk at the bottom ol' m pay to ansner questions 'i' and 3. I. ]t can 11c predicted that silicon will experience a large jump in ionisation energy after its a. second ionization. ll. mini ionization. L lottth ionisation. d. Iil'th ionization. B. Witch oldie following requires dc: most e-riergy'.J a. second indication of 1i '1. I'ottrllt ionization of}; L Iirst ionization ol' Ne d. diird ionization ot'Re 9. Niobium [Nins am] a. nondetal. L alkali nttal. ll. transition metal. :I. halogen. to. ]t cart ‘he pred.ic1ed that element 11% would have prop- erties similar to aim a. alkali earth natalL metalloid. ll. halogen. cl. noble gas. Practice, Practice. Practice Practice to Improve your performance on standardized tesls. Don't compare yourself to anyone else. Successive Inc-leaflets Energies fur the Perla-cl 2 Elements mutation energy Mind!" in c' s"' 5* 1"" ir-h 9'-h ------ EEI------ 1nd 3rd IEEI [EE- [Elli m m ——— _- mm— Emissions: I '1— 3 chemistrymcco n1.'standa rdi zed test Eumulatiye Review 33. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. a. no cl. no 1:. yes e. yes c. no 1‘. no 34. a. 1.1 x10 2m. b. 1.62 s10 3mm c. 1.1 x tfltkg {1.123 m. to 9kg " mol Is an abbreviation for mole. a quantity of matter. Standardized Test Practice 13"! 35. The energy of a quantum equals the frequency times Planck's constant. 35. iron Standardized Teal Practice 1. c E. b F???“ ilcrtln 2a 3a 4c 5d Thinking Erilicallg FT. T8. T9. 30. it’s a 2A element with a as? config uration. The two 5 electrons are easily removed, but the third electron must be removed from the {n-1} p orbital, which is much more tightly held. Eioth ions have the configu- ration 1512552p‘, a stable, noble gas configuration. For the d-bloclt elernenE, the highest values occur for halt-filled and near halt- filled d orbitals. {He with a configuration of Ed5 has the highest melting point]- Relating to Hund’s rule, it seems that metallic bonding strengthens as the number of unpaired electrons increases, reach- ing a maximum when the orbital is half-tilled. Note that Hg and Rn hence no unpaired electrons and substantially lower melting points. For the p-bIo-dt elements {Bl—136}, again the elements with un paired p electrons tend to have higher melting points. The graph should show density increasing with increasing atomic number. Note that the density of nitrogen is so low because it is the only element that exists as a gas {the others are solids}. See the Solutions Manual for graph. until-Id Sdulcaflcl'ltant Stencil-ck Pages TIE-1?? UCP.1. UCEE. UCP.5: 3.1. 31:63 1?? ...
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Answers_to_Chapter_6_Problems - Ennrept Mapping 25 1...

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