Biology, 8e (Campbell)
Genomes and Their Evolution
1) For mapping studies of genomes, most of which were far along before 2000, the 3-stage method was often
used. Which is the usual order in which the stages were performed, assuming some overlap of the three?
A) genetic map, sequencing of fragments, physical map
B) linkage map, physical map, sequencing of fragments
C) sequencing of entire genome, physical map, genetic map
D) cytogenetic linkage, sequencing, physical map
E) physical map, linkage map, sequencing
2) What is the difference between a linkage map and a physical map?
A) For a linkage map, markers are spaced by recombination frequency, whereas for a physical map they are
spaced by numbers of base pairs (bp).
B) For a physical map, the ATCG order and sequence must be achieved, but not for the linkage map.
C) For a linkage map, it is shown how each gene is linked to every other gene.
D) For a physical map, the distances must be calculable in units such as nanometers.
E) There is no difference between the two except in the type of pictorial representation.
3) How is a physical map of the genome of an organism achieved?
A) using recombination frequency
B) using very high-powered microscopy
C) using restriction enzyme cutting sites
D) using sequencing of nucleotides
E) using DNA fingerprinting via electrophoresis
4) Which of the following most correctly describes a shotgun technique for sequencing a genome?
A) genetic mapping followed immediately by sequencing
B) physical mapping followed immediately by sequencing
C) cloning large genome fragments into very large vectors such as YACs, followed by sequencing
D) cloning several sizes of fragments into various size vectors, ordering the clones, and then sequencing them
E) cloning the whole genome directly, from one end to the other
5) The biggest problem with the shotgun technique is its tendency to underestimate the size of the genome.
Which of the following might best account for this?
A) skipping some of the clones to be sequenced
B) missing some of the overlapping regions of the clones
C) counting some of the overlapping regions of the clones twice
D) having some of the clones die during the experiment and therefore not be represented
E) missing some duplicated sequences
6) What is bioinformatics?
A) a technique using 3D images of genes in order to predict how and when they will be expressed
B) a method that uses very large national and international databases to access and work with sequence
C) a software program available from NIH to design genes
D) a series of search programs that allow a student to identify who in the world is trying to sequence a given
E) a procedure that uses software to order DNA sequences in a variety of comparable ways