Biology, 8e (Campbell)
Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
1) Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes),
was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of
B) the fossil record.
D) the origin of new species.
E) natural selection.
2) Which of the events described below agrees with the idea of catastrophism?
A) The gradual uplift of the Himalayas by the collision of the Australian crustal plate with the Eurasian crustal
B) The formation of the Grand Canyon by the Colorado River over millions of years
C) The gradual deposition of sediments many kilometers thick on the floors of seas and oceans
D) The sudden demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large
extraterrestrial body with Earth
E) The development of the Galapagos Islands from underwater seamounts over millions of years
3) What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
A) Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.
B) Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations gradually change.
C) Earth is millions of years old, and populations rapidly change.
D) Earth is millions of years old, and populations are unchanging.
E) Earth is millions of years old, and populations gradually change.
4) During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck
while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement is most likely
to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception?
A) Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes.
B) Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits.
C) Only favorable adaptations have survival value.
D) Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance.
E) Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival.
5) Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed (i.e., unchanging)?
A) Aristotle, Cuvier, and Lamarck
B) Linnaeus, Cuvier, and Lamarck
C) Lyell, Linnaeus, and Lamarck
D) Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier
E) Hutton, Lyell, and Darwin
6) In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, exposed to ever-colder
temperatures, would eventually give rise to ever more cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this
regard were most in agreement with the ideas of