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Origin_of_sacred_texts_-_Torah,_Talmud,_Gospels - D...

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DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS : The Pentateuch (the first 5 books of the Bible, also called the Torah) is composed of 4 separate and identifiable texts that were woven together as one document by scribes after the Babylonian Exile (586-539 bce). These 4 authors are anonymous, but historians use the names below to identify the different pieces of text authored by different people. Jahwist (J) – written c. 950 bce (southern kingdom, Judah’s interpretation. Uses the name ‘Yahweh’ for God). Elohist (E) – written c. 850 bce (northern kingdom, Israel’s interpretation. Prefers generic term ‘Elohim’ for God) Deuteronomist (D) – c. 650-621 bce Priestly Source (P) – written during or after the Exile, c. 550-400 bce (shows a focus on laws) A redactor , probably Ezra the scribe, was in charge of editing and combining the 4 above texts into the present form of one continuous document, in the post-Babylonian Exile period. -------------------------- ORIGIN OF TALMUD : After the Hebrew Bible is written, Rabbinic Judaism (primarily 70-200 ce) is responsible for the emergence of the Talmud. There were several different
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