Early Child Cognitive & Preschool

Early Child Cognitive & Preschool -...

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Developmental Psychology Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Classroom Experiences USC Jane E. Roberts, Ph.D.
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Cognitive Development - Piaget Believed that young children lacked mental operations, ability to manipulate mental representations Period called preoperational when thought is: Centered Appearance-bound Static Irreversible Egocentric
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Figure 6.4 Piaget’s tasks
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Updating Piaget’s Theory Researchers who have modified Piaget’s tasks conclude that: Children show many mental competencies earlier than Piaget thought. Older children (even adults) sometimes fail his problems. Piaget was correct in that children have their own characteristic, age-related ways of thinking.
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Information Processing Focuses on development of mental systems involved in attending, remembering, and reasoning. Attention: includes both focused and attentional ; both develop with age. Young children have short attention spans.
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Figure 6.5   Age Related Changes in Attention Young children have short attention spans. The amount of time children spent away from the table during a 10 videotape of a puppet show decreased dramatically from 2 to 4 years while the amount of time they spent looking at the videotape increased.
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Figure 6.6 Development of Visual Scanning Preschoolers have difficulty switching focus of attention. Eye movements from a 5-year-old and 6 ½-year-old (right) show where these two children looked before saying a pair of houses was “the same.” Children 6 years and older use a more systematic approach .
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Types of Memory Episodic: associated with particular time, place, or circumstance Semantic: storehouse of word and information about world Explicit: includes episodic and semantic Implicit: conditioned responses, habits, and learned procedures Figure 6.7
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Developmental Memory Changes An expanding knowledge base Increased speed of processing Improved inhibition and resistance to inference Better use of memory strategies (component of metamemory) Intelligence correlates with memory span. Memory improves with experience.
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Figure 6.7 Long Term Memory for Circus Day The different long-term memory systems shown here record different types of information and have different patterns of development.
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Becoming Symbol-Minded Understanding symbol artifacts is gradual process. Children younger than 3 lack:
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Early Child Cognitive & Preschool -...

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