Genes and Environment lecture 3

Genes and Environment lecture 3 - Developmental Psychology...

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University of South Carolina Jane E. Roberts, Ph.D. Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Genes & Environment
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Fundamental Relations Fundamental Relations Parents’ Genotype Child’s Genotype Child’s Environment Child’s Phenotype
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Family Studies Family Studies The mainstay of modern behavioral genetics research A trait of interest is measured among groups of people who vary in genetic relatedness Correlations between the measure of the trait in individuals with different relationships are examined to see if they are higher for individuals who Are genetically more similar Share the same environment
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Functional Units of Heredity Functional Units of Heredity Genes - segments of a single DNA molecule DNA molecules comprise 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs Autosomes – first 22 pair Sex Chromosomes - pair 23 (XX for females and XY for males) Karotype – chromosomal display
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Mechanisms of Heredity: DNA Mechanisms of Heredity: DNA
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The building blocks of life The building blocks of life
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A karyotype A karyotype
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Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal Abnormalities Errors in cell division Result in missing or extra chromosomes Down Syndrome (most common autosomal disorder, responsible for 40% of MR) Can occur in sex chromosomes or autosomes
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Measuring Influences on Measuring Influences on Behavior Behavior Behavioral genetics – studies how much nature and nurture contribute to behavior Heritability – a statistic (h2) that tells us whether the variability within a specific group is due to genes…and if so, then how much? Heritability=variability due to genetics/total variability.
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Measuring Heritability Measuring Heritability Family Studies The degree to which bio-relatives share traits Adoption Studies The degree to which adopted children resemble biological relatives or adopted family members Twin Studies Concordance: The degree to which MZ and DZ twins resemble each other for a trait
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More on Heritability More on Heritability It must range between 0.0 and1.0.
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course PSYC 420 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '09 term at South Carolina.

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Genes and Environment lecture 3 - Developmental Psychology...

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