Prenatal and Birth Lec 3

Prenatal and Birth Lec 3 - Prenatal Developmentand Birth...

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Prenatal  Development and  Birth 
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Environment Environment Most complex behaviors are  influenced by genetic factors  AND the  environment through multiple  processes: Heritability (single or polygenic or  emergenic) Stimulation (norms of reaction) Shared and Non-shared Environments Passive/Evocative  Niche-Picking
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Intelligence and Reaction Range Intelligence and Reaction Range
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Conception Results from the union of two  gametes , the egg and  the sperm Gametes are produced through a specialized cell  division,  meiosis , which results in each gamete’s  having only half the genetic material of all other normal  cells in the body 
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Sex Differences  Begin at Conception Approximately 120 to 150 males are  conceived for every 100 females  because the sperm bearing the Y  chromosome are lighter and swim faster  to the egg than those bearing an X  chromosome However, male embryos are miscarried  at higher rates than female embryos,  and boys are more vulnerable to  developmental disorders Males are also more vulnerable to illness 
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All Sperm are NOT Equal…. . All Sperm are NOT Equal…. .
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Prenatal Development Prenatal Development Averages 38 weeks Also known as gestational period Has three stages: germinal,  embryonic, and fetal First trimester a vulnerable time when  many miscarriages (spontaneous  abortions) occur
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Stage 1: First 2 Weeks Stage 1: First 2 Weeks Germinal Development Germinal Development
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The Cells Four major developmental  processes transform a  zygote into an embryo and then into a  fetus  1. Cell division  results in the proliferation of cells 2. Cell migration  is the movement of cells from their  point of origin to somewhere else in the embryo 3. Cell differentiation  transforms the embryo’s  unspecialized  stem cells  into roughly 350 different  types of cells 4. The  selective death of certain cells , or  apoptosis also enables prenatal development
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Videoclip of Fetal  Development Siegler et al., 2007 (ch. 2, clip 4)
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Stage 2:  Weeks 3 to 8 Stage 2:  Weeks 3 to 8 Embryonic Stage Characteristics Embryonic Stage Characteristics Organs and major body systems  develop rapidly Respiratory Digestive Nervous Risk of spontaneous abortion, or  miscarriage
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course PSYC 420 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '09 term at South Carolina.

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Prenatal and Birth Lec 3 - Prenatal Developmentand Birth...

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