friedman 4e chapter05

friedman 4e chapter05 - Chapter 5: Biological Aspects of...

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    Chapter 5: Biological Aspects of Personality
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    Direct Genetic Effects Natural selection and functionalism Natural selection  the process by which adaptive characteristics  emerge over generations includes behavioral tendencies and emotions —"personality“ Evolutionary personality theory  Modern application of Darwin’s ideas to individual  differences in personality Attention is focused on the function  of a  characteristic in survival
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    Direct Genetic Effects Example: Angelman Syndrome A congenital (inborn) disorder caused by a  defect on chromosome 15 Happy, cheerful, attractive, friendly Mental retardation and jerky movement Demonstrates how genetic factors set before  birth can dramatically influence later  personality Example: Williams Syndrome Excessively sociable, limited intellect
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    Direct Genetic Effects Behavioral Genomics The study of how genes affect behavior How human genes, evolved through variation  and natural selection, function together with  each other and the environment to influence  behavior
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    Genetic Effects Through Temperament Temperament Stable individual differences in emotional  reactivity Longitudinal studies suggest that  characteristics tend to remain stable over  time as children mature
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    Genetic Effects Through Temperament Four basic aspects of temperament Activity Vigorous motion (vs. passivity) Emotionality Easily aroused (vs. calm and stable) Sociability Approaches and enjoys others (vs. aloof) Impulsivity Aggressive and cold (vs. conscientious and friendly)
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    Eysenck’s Model Links the introversion-extroversion  dimension to the underlying nervous  system Extroverts have a low level of brain arousal,  and so seek out stimulation Introverts have a higher level of internal  arousal, and so they tend to shy away from  stimulating social environments
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    Approach, Inhibition, and Regulation: Jeffrey Gray Two relevant biological systems Behavioral inhibition system Provides the orienting response to novel  situations and also responds to things that are  punishing Overactive anxiety Behavioral activation system (Behavioral  approach system) Regulates our response to rewards Overactive impulsivity
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    Sensation Seeking and Addiction- Proneness Zuckerman's theory   those high on "sensation seeking" have a low 
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course PSYC 440 taught by Professor Elmore during the Spring '09 term at South Carolina.

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friedman 4e chapter05 - Chapter 5: Biological Aspects of...

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