Chapter 2 Outline
Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Cellular Level
Definition of Neuroanatomy
Two main parts of the nervous system
Central Nervous System (e.g., brain and spinal cord)
Peripheral Nervous System (e.g., somatic nervous system which controls sensations and muscle
Autonomic Nervous System (e.g., controls involuntary movements and returns the body to resting
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
is a scientific approach that focuses on communication between basic science
and applied clinical research.
Dendrites (e.g., tree-like branches that receive messages from the neurons)
Soma (e.g., keeps the cell alive)
Neuron (e.g., nerve cells found throughout the body and brain that sends and receives messages).
Axon (e.g., tube-like structure that carries the message to the cells)
Synapse (e.g., spaces between neurons)
Neurotransmitters (e.g., chemicals that transmit information to and from neuron).
The Neuron (see Figure 2.1)
The Structure of the Brain
Brain stem (e.g., controls fundamental biological functions such as breathing)
Medulla, pons, and cerebellum (e.g., regulates breathing, heartbeat, and motor control)
Midbrain (e.g., coordinates sensory information and movement).
Thalamus (e.g., brain’s relay station, directing nerve signals that carry sensory information to the
Hypothalamus (e.g., responsible for maintaining homeostasis)
Forebrain (e.g., includes the limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex).
Amygdala, the cingulated gyrus, and the hippocampus (e.g., deals with primarily emotions and
Hippocampus (e.g., plays a role in memory formation and has been linked with memory deficits)
Basal ganglia (e.g., caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and
subthalamic nucleus, thoughts to inhibit movement)
The Cerebral Cortex and the Lobes of the Brain
Cerebral cortex (e.g., contains structures that contribute to higher cognitive functioning including
reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time, and creativity)
Responsible for language and cognitive functioning.
Tends to process information in a more linear and logical manner.
Processes information in parts sequentially.
Uses both language and symbols including numbers.
Processes the world in a holistic manner.
Includes spatial context, creativity, imagery, and intuition.