Chapter 2 Review Notes

Chapter 2 Review Notes - Chapter 2 Outline Research in...

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Chapter 2 Outline Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Cellular Level Cellular Level: 1. Definition of Neuroanatomy a. Two main parts of the nervous system i. Central Nervous System (e.g., brain and spinal cord) ii. Peripheral Nervous System (e.g., somatic nervous system which controls sensations and muscle movements) iii. Autonomic Nervous System (e.g., controls involuntary movements and returns the body to resting levels) b. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. c. Translational research is a scientific approach that focuses on communication between basic science and applied clinical research. 2. The Neuron a. Dendrites (e.g., tree-like branches that receive messages from the neurons) b. Soma (e.g., keeps the cell alive) c. Neuron (e.g., nerve cells found throughout the body and brain that sends and receives messages). d. Axon (e.g., tube-like structure that carries the message to the cells) e. Synapse (e.g., spaces between neurons) f. Neurotransmitters (e.g., chemicals that transmit information to and from neuron). g. The Neuron (see Figure 2.1) 3. The Structure of the Brain a. Brain stem (e.g., controls fundamental biological functions such as breathing) b. Medulla, pons, and cerebellum (e.g., regulates breathing, heartbeat, and motor control) c. Midbrain (e.g., coordinates sensory information and movement). d. Thalamus (e.g., brain’s relay station, directing nerve signals that carry sensory information to the cortex) e. Hypothalamus (e.g., responsible for maintaining homeostasis) f. Forebrain (e.g., includes the limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex). g. Amygdala, the cingulated gyrus, and the hippocampus (e.g., deals with primarily emotions and impulses) h. Hippocampus (e.g., plays a role in memory formation and has been linked with memory deficits) i. Basal ganglia (e.g., caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus, thoughts to inhibit movement) 4. The Cerebral Cortex and the Lobes of the Brain a. Cerebral cortex (e.g., contains structures that contribute to higher cognitive functioning including reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time, and creativity) b. Left hemisphere i. Responsible for language and cognitive functioning. ii. Tends to process information in a more linear and logical manner. iii. Processes information in parts sequentially. iv. Uses both language and symbols including numbers. c. Right hemisphere i. Processes the world in a holistic manner. ii. Includes spatial context, creativity, imagery, and intuition. d. Each hemisphere consists of four lobes (e.g., temporal, parietal, occipital, and frontal).
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