Chapter 4 Review Notes

Chapter 4 Review Notes - Chapter 4 Outline What is Anxiety?...

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Chapter 4 Outline What is Anxiety? Anxiety: 1. Definition of Anxiety a. A common emotion characterized by physical symptoms, future-oriented thought, and escape or avoidance behaviors. b. Occurs when people encounter a new situation or anticipation a life-changing event (e.g., starting college, getting married). c. The anxiety is usually time-limited and leaves when the event is over for an individual. 2. Fight-or-Flight Response a. A general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system is activated by stress or fear that includes increased heart rate, enhanced muscle activity, and increased respiration. b. The activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is triggered by fear or stress. c. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) part of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body for the fight-or-flight response. When activated the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration allowing the body to perform at peak efficiency. i. Allows you to use all available resources to escape the anxiety-provoking situation. d. Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is part of the autonomic nervous system that counteracts the effects of system activation by slowing down heart rate and respiration, returning the body to a resting state. e. The Elements of Anxiety (see Figure 4.2) i. Anxiety ii. Physical symptoms iii. Negative cognitions and subjective distress iv. Escape or avoidance of behavior v. Panic attack (e.g., a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, subjective distress, and a cascade of physical symptoms). vi. Worry (e.g., apprehensive, negative expectations, or outcomes about the future or the past that are considered to be unreasonable in light of the actual situation). 3. Normal anxiety versus abnormal anxiety (e.g., things to consider) a. Experiencing feelings of anxiety is a normal experience. b. Functional impairment c. Developmental age (e.g., cognitive development not actual chronological age). d. Sociodemographic factors (e.g., sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors). e. Both men and women equally seek treatment if the fear and anxiety is severe enough. What are the Anxiety Disorders? Anxiety Disorders: 1. Definition of Anxiety Disorders a. The group of disorders characterized by heightened physical arousal, cognitive distress, and behavioral avoidance of feared objects, situations, and events. b. Comorbidity exists for those diagnosed with anxiety disorders (e.g., 57% with individuals also having another anxiety disorder or depression). c. In America 31.2% of adults will suffer from anxiety at some point in their lives. d. Anxiety disorders are the most common disorder among all ages with the average age of around 11 years old. e.
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2011 for the course PSYC 410 taught by Professor Swan during the Fall '10 term at South Carolina.

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Chapter 4 Review Notes - Chapter 4 Outline What is Anxiety?...

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