Chapter 9 Review Notes

Chapter 9 Review Notes - Chapter 1 Outline How Severe Is...

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Chapter 1 Outline How Severe Is the Problem? Use, Abuse, and Dependence Severity of the Problem: 1. Definition of Substance use a. Substance abuse is low to moderate use experiences with a substance that does not produce problems with social, educational, or occupational functioning. b. Substance intoxication is the acute effects of substance use. c. Table 9. 1 Legal Blood Alcohol Limits Around the World d. Substance abuse is the ingestion of a substance that leads to disruption in social, educational, or occupational functioning. e. Substance dependence is a condition characterized by two distinct factors, tolerance and withdrawal. f. Tolerance is diminished response to a drug after repeated exposure to it. g. Withdrawal symptoms associated with physical dependence on a drug that occurs when the drug is no longer taken. 2. What does the DSM-IV-TR Say about Abuse? a. A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. b. Failure to fulfill role at work, school, or home. c. Use in situations in which it is hazardous (e.g. drinking and driving an automobile). d. Substance-related legal problems. e. Continued use despite persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused by substance use. 3. What does the DSM-IV-TR Say about Dependence? a. A maladaptive pattern of substance use lading to clinically significant impairment or distress. b. Plus at least three of the following: i. Tolerance ii. Withdrawal iii. Using larger amounts of substance for longer iv. Persistent desire for the substance (e.g., unable to quit) v. Spends significant time trying to obtain the drug vi. Effects on Axis IV and recreation vii. Continued use despite medical or psychological problem Commonly Used “Licit” Drugs Licit Drugs: 1. Caffeine a. These are drugs that are “legal” such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. b. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that boosts energy, mood, awareness, concentration, and wakefulness. i. Can be consumed safely in moderation. ii. Coffee aspect of social life. iii. Side effects of use. iv. Most frequently used drug. v. Impact on neurotransmitters. vi. Long half-life. c. Functional Impairment of caffeine: i. Consumption is socially accepted. ii. Health effects (e.g., cardiovascular disorders, reproductive problems, osteoporosis, cancer, and psychiatric disturbances). 1
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iii. Acute caffeine intoxication. iv. Caffeine associated death. d. Epidemiology of caffeine: i. Most widely used drug, universally accepted. ii. 80% of the world’s population consumes it daily. iii. Sodas (e.g., 2 to 5 mg of caffeine per ounce Coke vs. Mountain Dew). iv. Tea (e.g., 5 mg per ounce). v. Coffee (e.g., 7mg per ounce). vi. Lattes (e.g., over 20mg per ounce). vii. Espresso (e.g., 50mg per ounce). viii. Energy drinks (e.g., 10 mg to over 100mg per ounce).
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