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Chapter 11 Review Notes

Chapter 11 Review Notes - Chapter 1 Outline Personality...

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Chapter 1 Outline Personality Trait versus Personality Disorder 1. Trait versus Disorder: a. A trait refers to the specific and characteristics way someone approaches the world. b. A state refers to the expression of a personality characteristic that is related to a specific circumstance, clinical condition, or period of time. c. When someone is unable to adapt his or her characteristics approach to the world when necessary, and that approach causes significant psychological distress either to the person or to others. d. Key explanations to note when evaluating personality disorders: i. It is critical to differentiate between a personality trait and a personality disorder. ii. Personality disorders should never be diagnosed after a single brief behavioral observation. iii. Personality disorders should not be diagnosed in the absence of a surrounding context. e. Personality disorders fall under the Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. f. The three P’s i. Patterns of behavior that are persistent (e.g., over time). ii. Patterns of behavior that are pervasive (e.g., extend across all people and situations). iii. Patterns of behaviors that are pathological (e.g., clearly meaning abnormal). g. Personality disorders are an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates from the norm, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable across time, and leads to distress or impairment. h. Personality disorders have few biological or observable signs and cannot be detected with a blood test. i. Three Cluster’s of Personality disorders: i. Cluster A (e.g., a group of personality disorders that include characteristic ways of behaving that can be viewed as odd, quirky, or eccentric including paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders). ii. Cluster B (e.g., a group of personality disorders that include characteristic ways of behaving that can be viewed as exaggerated, inflated, dramatic, emotional, or erratic, includes antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, and histrionic personality disorders). iii. Cluster C (e.g., a group of personality disorder that include characteristic ways of behaving that are marked by considerable anxiety or withdrawal, includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders). Personality Disorder Clusters Clusters: 1. Personality Cluster A a. These personality disorders are viewed as odd, quirky, or eccentric. b. Paranoid personality disorders (e.g., distrustful and suspicious of others).
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