HISTORY 9D--FINAL EXAM

HISTORY 9D--FINAL EXAM - eHISTORY 9D FINAL EXAMINATION...

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eHISTORY 9D: FINAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PART I: Three of the following questions will appear on the final examination. You will have to answer two of them. I shall choose one of the questions for everyone to answer. You will choose the other from the remaining two (80%): 1. Just as the period of Late Antiquity provided the context for the emergence of Islam, the first decades of the sixteenth century provided the context for the emergence of the modern Middle East. Explain. Late antiquity – four aspects 1. No single religion imposed 2. Monotheistic belief can grow 3. Empires not concerned about the south, when they fought over the central plain 4. Empires devasted by the warfare, subject to Islamic conquest During the late antiquity, there were four aspects that allowed Islam to emerge. First, the imperial governments did not impose single religion and culture throughout the territory. Government did not forbid other religions, especially in the peripheral areas. Islam can grow without strong governmental opposition. Second, many monotheistic beliefs had already existed in the area, so that people were familiar with the ideas and could accept a new monotheistic religion. Third, while Byzantine Empire and Sasanian Empire fought over the control of central plain, including Levant and Mesopotamia, both empires were not so concerned about what was happening in the south, Arabian Peninsula. Therefore, Islamic communities grew and became strong before the empires could perceive the threat. Lastly, both empires were too devastated to respond to such threat because of the huge expense brought by the constant warfare in the sixth century. As a result, they were subject to the Islamic conquest that began in the seventh century. Under this context, Islam was able to emerge, flourish and expand. Likewise, the events in the early sixteenth century provided context for the Middle East to enter modern world. Modernity can be composed of two large themes, world economy and the modern nation- state system. Three events in the early 16 th century around the world enabled Middle East to become integrated into the global economy and to adopt the modern state system – the emergence of huge and long-lasting empires, the commercial revolution and the Protestant Reformation. 1. Role of the gunpowder empires – transition, ended military-patronage states, use gunpowder to subdue tribes within and defend against invasion, stability – bureaucracy, piracy, monopoly, law and order for agriculture, integration 2. Commercial revolution [technological breakthroughs and new institutions] => trade , more large scale trades => encouraged specialization => the world system began to emerge => incorporated Middle East 3. Protestant Reformation => religious wars => Westphalia Treaty 1648 => territorial states => states become competitive over resources => modern world system and competition in the middle east
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Because of the long span of empires, the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Empire provided a transition from early-modern period to modern period. They ended the turbulence accompanied with the
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