Unformatted text preview: Study Questions LS1 Midterm 2 Note: We are not posting answers to the questions below. You should be able to answer them from the class materials. We won’t answer them via email either. We will answer questions on the topics, if you are confused. The questions are intended to help you review concepts. There is other material not covered by sterunum fercula, these questions. out oriented shoulder long second digit thin bone wall bipedal stance semi lunate wrist bone 1. What skeletalloss of fingersnecessary for flight in birds? contour feathersgroups characters are insulating, In which of these filamentous feathers does each appear: dinsosaurs, saurischians, theropods, maniraptorans, Archaeopteryx, flight feather long limbs modern birds? 2. What are the three types of feathers we observe in modern birds? What are their functions? flight, contour, display 3. Which traits associated with flight are found only in birds (including Archaeopteryx)? flight feathers 4. Why would features associated with the ability to fly appear in ancestors that could cuz evo is not goal oriented, the ancestors probly just gained the traits on accident; pre adaptation, those not fly? traits might be helpful becuase of other reasons 5. Compare two organisms that differ in size but not shape. If the larger organism is twice as long, how much more surface area does it have? How much more volume? What if the larger organism is 3 times long as the smaller? 6. What are three biological traits that you would expect to scale with surface area under isometry? the amount of gas exchanged at a certain time; the amount of water/nutrient absorbed in plants; the amount of energy produced in metabolism 7. What are three biological processes you would expect to scale with volume under isometry? weight; number of cells; the amount of water contained across diff. individuals 8. Metabolism in mammals has a scaling factor of 2.25. Which consumes more energy per gram, a mouse or an elephant? Which consumes more energy as a single organism, a mouse or an elephant (hint: if you had pet elephant and a pet mouse, which would you buy more food for?)? mouse/elephant/elephant 9. What is the difference between endothermy and ectothermy? Between homeothermy and heterothermy? where the heat is generated/ temperature 10. Young salmon switch from respiring across their skin to respiring across their gills as they increase in size. Why do gills provide a greater amount of surface area for respiration than their skin? because they have flattening shaped gills 11. Describe 5 ways that organisms can compensate for changes in SA/V. flattening, projection, branching convoluted, 12. Organisms have a fundamental need for energy and growth. What molecule is aveoli used for energy in living organisms? What type of molecule is the basic building block for growth? ATP/Carbon 13. What type of chemical process besides one using an electric transport chain can be used to generate ATP? fermentation, 14. What is an electron donor? At what point is it used in an electron transport chain? What is an electron acceptor? At what point is it used in an electron transport chain? 15. Name and define the three general types of electron transport chain ATP generation. photo, chemoorgano, chemolitho 16. Name and define the two general types of acquiring organic molecules as building blocks. heterotroph; autotroph 17. For the following name the electron donor, acceptor, and important byproduct. a. Oxygenic photosynthesis water; NADP CO2 ; oxygen b. Aerobic respiration sugar, other organic molecules; oxygen; co2 and water c. Nitrogen fixation b y bacteria ferredoxin; N2; ammonia d. Sulfur reducing bacteria organic compound or H2; sulfate, sulfur, sulfite; H2S 18. Why are oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration so prevalent on earth today? oxygen reactive toxic, and useful ; used by eukaryotes, popular 19. Describe four ways that prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes. llack of nuclear envelope, organelles , endosymbiosis 20. Why are “prokaryotes” a paraphyletic group? compartmentalization, sex, cellular transpo 21. What evidence supports the hypothesis that Archaea and Eukaryota share a more recent common ancestor than Archaea, bacteria and Eukaryota together? ss rRNA 22. Thiomargarita namibiensis, the sulfur pearl bacteria, is the largest prokaryote. Whatadaptation does it exhibit to resolve SA/V limitations on its gliding, flagella, physiology? large vacuole to store nitrates, nutrients; small amount of cytoplasm => less energy needed in spiral motion that size 23. Describe three modes of bacterial locomotion. thermo, alkaline, acid, endoliths, halophiles(salty) 24. Name and describe five types of extremophiles. 25. Name and describe 4 key innovations associated with the eukaryotes. chloroplasts, sex, multicell, 26. What evidence supports the endosymbiosis theory of mitochondria strutural support acquisition? DNA similar to those of bacteria, own ribosome, reproduce by fission, independent from cell 27. Mitochondrial DNA is most closely related to that of which taxon group? How division, double mem proteobacteria, does this support the endosymbiosis theory of mitochondria acquisition? 28. What is the difference between primary and secondary endosymbiosis? How number of membranes ould you tell the difference between a chloroplast acquired through primary w endosymbiosis and one acquired through secondary endosymbiosis? 29. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction? genetic variation, in response to 30. What is alternation of generations? What is the difference between loss of old variants, might be mo isomorphic and heteromorphic alternation of generations? 31. What taxonomic groups from lecture have alternation of generations? plantae, brown algae, 32. What selects for the diversity of photopigments we see in phosynthetic depth of water; chlorophyll a organisms today? Which photopigment is present in all photosynthetic eukaryotes? red tides; endosymbionts with corals, sponges 33. Describe two important ecological roles unique to the dinoflagellates. 34. What is a primary producer? 35. What is the difference between a primary and a secondary consumer? water 36. Describe five challenges in the transition to land for plants. loss, support, reproduction (water needed) nutrients, transport mitochondria, 37. What are five major types of symbiosis associated with angiosperm line, chloroplast, mycorrhizae, going back to its eukaryotic ancestor? nitrogen fixing 38. How do land plants, in general, prevent water loss? What problem does this prokaryotes, pollinators create in terms of gas exchange? What adaptation resolves the problem of gas seed dispersal exchange? cuticle blocks gas exchange > stomata gurad cells 39. What are the benefits for the plant and the benefits for the fungus in the mutualism between plants and mycorrhizae? more water/nutrient absorbed for plants; fungi get photosyn 40. swim=> pollen grain Describe trends in reproductive strategy in the evolution of land plants and product resistant to drying how this relates to reproduction on land as opposed to water. seed => provide nutrition 41. Describe the evolution of vascular systems in land plants. What molecule is no need to grow on associated with increased structural support? What taxon group plays an parents important ecological role in the breakdown of this molecule?
lignin, bacteria 42. Looking at the geologic record, atmospheric oxygen and carbon deposition are positively correlated. Why is this? oxygen is a by product when fixing carbon in photosynthesis 43. What is the difference between heterospory and homospory? Which groups exhibit heterospory? size of spores; bisexual ; seed plants &lycophytes 44. Why is pollen considered an adaptation to life on land (hint compare to life cycles without pollen as part of the gametophyte phase). less water needed 45. Why are seeds an adaptation to life on land? seeds may survive in drought/winter; nutrient provided 46. What are four general methods of seed dispersal? What characteristics are associated with each? wind (light), water (float), animal (visually attrative, sticky), gravity (wing) 47. Describe how you might tell the difference between a flower that is bat pollinated, bird pollinated, and bee pollinated?
bat pollinated bird bee smells attractive red and yellow yellow and blue, sweet, fresh ...
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