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Chemistry Naming and Structures

Chemistry Naming and Structures - Test Ch 7 8 9 10 11 12...

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Test Ch 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, & 12 Naming and Structures Carboxylic Acid - C in carboxyl group is always #1 in naming -find the longest carbon chain with the COOH group -drop the “e” from alkane name and add “oic acid” -name branches with IUPAC *the presence of two polar groups results in very strong hydrogen bonding *weak acids undergoing ionization in water to form the carboxylate ion Derivatives Common Names Formic methanoic HCOOH Acetic ethanoic CH COOH Butyric butanoic CH (CH ) COOH Capric decanoic CH (CH ) COOH Lauric dodecanoic CH (CH ) COOH Stearic octadecanoic CH (CH ) COOH Carboxylate Salts -the product of a carboxylic acid and a strong base - positive ion named first - carboxylate ion named by changing “oic acid” to “ate” Ester - OH of acid is replaced with OR group - name R group like IUPAC - name acid with “ate” ending - nomenclature: same # of carbons, different compounds Acid Halide - OH of acid replaced with halide (F, Cl, Br, I) - name change “oic acid” to “oyl” + name of halide Acid Anhydride
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Test Ch 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, & 12 - name change “acid” to “anhydride” - both halves are from the same acid Amine - from ammonia + alcohol - N has combining power of 3 - sp^3 hybridized - primary, secondary… # of R groups excluding H - longest chain with NH group called “amino” with lowest # - rest with alkane name - if an O is present, it takes lowest # from NH Physical properties - Primary and secondary similar BP to aldehyde and ketone - Tertiary lower MP and BP than 1 and 2 (no hydrogen bonding) - All amines have water solubility similar to aldehydes and ketones - Nitrogen very ELECTRONEGATIVE o Very polar o Hydrogen bonding o High boiling point o Organic bases Amine Salt - amine + acid = amine salt - name each group on N followed by ammonium + halide Amide - # of R groups classifies as 1 2 3 - drop “oic acid” replace with “amide” Stereoisomers - have the same connectivity but differ in their configuration Enantiomers -mirror image, non superimposable
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