notes 1014

notes 1014 - 14 October 2010 Religion 161: Islam Sect: a...

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14 October 2010 Religion 161: Islam Sect: a group within a tradition that broke away from the foundation of the tradition in the case of Islam, neither Sunnism or Shi'ism can be referred to as sects both are part of Islamic orthodoxy Shi'ism: came into being because of two caliphs After the year 622 and the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina and became head of state the question of succession group of close companions of the Prophet who worked and lived with him through most of his life generally speaking it is believed that the Prophet did not specifically assign any one person to succeed him in the Islamic community – he may have made statements that some interpreted as meaning the Prophet was designating a successor Abu Bakr – a group of people, on the basis of an incident that took place right before the death of the Prophet, did not recognize that appointment because they thought the Prophet appointed his cousin In Ghadir Khum, after performing the noon prayer the Prophet asked the people to create a pulpit and he gave a speech. He said many things one of which was placing special status and qualities on the prodigy. He called his son-in-law and cousin 'Ali and said, “whoever I am the master and leader, this man is master and leader” (and he was talking about 'Ali). Some of the older companions of the prophet congratulated 'Ali for the proper selection that the Prophet had made. When the Prophet passed away, the commmunity appointed Abu Bakr, then 'Umar, then Uthman, and then 'Ali. This caused a split. Right after the death of the prophet there were two traditions: Sunnis: Those who followed the Sunnah Shi'ites: the part of 'Ali, those who remain and obey the covenant of the Prophet From the point of view of those who split it was not simply a crisis over succession but also a violation of the command of the Prophet This leads to more and more crisis between the groups 'Ali was respected by all the caliphs before him; they all looked up to him and respected him for
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notes 1014 - 14 October 2010 Religion 161: Islam Sect: a...

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