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Module 46 - Module 46 Contemporary Research on Personality...

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Module 46: Contemporary Research on Personality The Trait Perspective Trait: a characteristic pattern of behaviour or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports. Rather than explain personality in terms of childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations as Freud did, trait researchers have tried to describe personality in terms of stable and enduring behaviour patterns, or predispositions to feel and act. Some psychologists have also tried to use dominant traits to describe personality “types”. Exploring Traits Factor analysis: statistical procedure used to identify clusters of related items Two primary, genetically influenced dimensions (extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability) explain normal individual variations. Heredity, by influencing autonomic nervous system reactivity also influences temperament and behavioural style, which helps define personality. Assessing Traits Personal inventories: a questionnaire (usually true-false/agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviours; used to assess selected personality traits. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality test. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. - empirically derived: a test (such as MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups. The Big Five Factors CANOE C onscientiousness organized --- disorganized Careful --- careless Disciplined --- impulsive A greeableness soft-hearted --- ruthless Trusting --- suspicious Helpful --- uncooperative N euroticism calm --- anxious (emotional stability Secure --- insecure vs.instability)
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