Module 34 - Intro to Motivation

Module 34 - Intro to Motivation - Homeostasis a tendency to...

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Module 34: Intro to Motivation Motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour. Four perspectives useful for studying motivated behaviours… 1. instinct theory (now replaced by research on genetic predispositions and evolutionary influences) 2. drive-reduction theory (emphasizing the interaction b/w inner pushes and external pulls) 3. arousal theory (emphasizing urge for optimum level of stimulation) 4. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (describes how some motives are, if unsatisfied, more basic and compelling than others) Instincts Instinct: a complex behaviour must have a fixed patterned throughout a species and be unlearned. Misuses… - classifying behaviours as instincts (e.g. boasting “self-assertion instinct” / child’s low grades “underachiever”), which named behaviours instead of explaining them Drives and Incentives Drive-reduction theory: the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
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Unformatted text preview: Homeostasis: a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. e.g. body’s temperature-regulation system which works like a thermostat Incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour.- when there is a need and incentive, we feel strongly driven e.g. hungry person smells baking bread feels strong hunger drive Optimum Arousal Arousal theory helps explain the motivation for behaviours that do not reduce immediate physiological needs or tension states. Curiosity-driven behaviours, for example, suggest that too little stimulation can motivate people to seek a higher level of arousal. A Hierarchy of Motives Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active....
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