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Unformatted text preview: Ch.4 Shizzz Whether it is to quench a thirst, kill boredom, attain some spiritual experience, we do everything for a reason. Motivation refers to the processed that lead people to behave as they do. I t occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy. The need creates a state of tension that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate it. This can be either 1. utilitarian- desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit, such as when a person loads up on veggies for nutritional reasons 2. Hedonic- an experiential need, involving emotional responses or fantasies, such as when someone longs for a steak. The desired end state is the consumers goal (Marketers try to create products and services to provide the desired benefits and help the consumer to reduce this tension.) D rive- the magnitude of the tension it creates determines the urgency the consumer feels to reduce it. - We can satisfy a basic need in a variety of ways, and the specific path a person chooses is influenced both by her unique set of experiences and by the values her culture instills. Want- personal and cultural factors combine to create a want, which is one manifestation of a need. 1. Hunger is a basic need, the lack of food creates a tension that we satisfy when we eat cheeseburgers, double fudge oreos, fish, or bean sprouts. The specific route the consumer chooses is culturally and individually determined. * We describe motivation in terms of its strength (the pull it exerts on the consumer) and direction (the particular way the consumer attempts to reduce it) MO T IVAT IONA L STRENGT H-the degree to which a person will expend energy to reach one goal as opposed to another reflects his or her motivation to attain that goal.-there is a basic idea that people have some finite amount of energy that we direct toward our goals.-Early work on motivation ascribed behavior to instinct- the innate patterns of our behavior that are universal in a species. However, this view is largely discredited because the existence of an instinct is difficult to prove or disprove because we infer the instinct from the behavior it is supposed to explain (this type of circular explanation is called tautology) BIOLOGICAL THEORY VS. LEARNED NEEDS D rive theory- focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant stats of arousal, such as your stomach grumbles during a morning class. 1. the arousal this tension ( unpleasant state that exists if a persons consumption needs are not fulfilled) causes will motivate us to reduce it. Some researchers feel this need to reduce arousal is a basic mechanism that governs much of our behavior. - For example, a person may be grumpy if he hasnt eaten, or he may angry if he cannot afford the new car he wants- This state activates goal-oriented behavior, which attempts to reduce or eliminate this unpleasant state and return to a balanced one we call homeostasis ....
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- Spring '08