Wind_Energy_Essentials_Lecture 8

Torque bias lower efficiency 29 1192010 fault

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Unformatted text preview: sensor Faults Fault No 1 2 3 4 5 Fault β 1_m1=β 1_m1+5 Description (deg) Pitch Sensor Bias Pitch Sensor Scale Factor (deg) Pitch Sensor Bias Rotor Speed Sensor Frozen Simultaneous Rotor and Generator Speed Sensor Scale Factor β 2_m2=1.2 β 2_m2 β 3_m1=β 3_m1+10 r_m1=1.4 r_m2=1.1 g_m2=0.9 rad/s r_m2 g_m2 Fault No 6 7 8 9 Description Pitch Actuator 2 Hydraulic Failure Pitch Actuator 3 Air in Oil Generator Inner Control Loop Failure Increased Drivetrain Friction due to Wear Effect Slow Response Slow Response Gen. Torque Bias Lower Efficiency 29 11/9/2010 Fault Detection Requirements Fault No 1-5 6 7 8 9 Detection Time Requirement 10 Ts 8 Ts 600 Ts 5 Ts No Detection Time Constraints Ts: Sensor sampling time 0.01s • False alarm rate must be less than 1/105 Ts • False alarms must be cleared in 3 Ts Approach Fault Detection Residual Generation Physical Redundancy: Sensor Fault Detection Parity Equations: Actuator Fault Detection Kalman Filtering: Sensor Fault Diagnosis Signal Processing: Filtering Noisy Residuals Decisioning Up/Down Counters 30 11/9/2010 Wind Disturbance • 100 simulations wind different noise seeds Response to Blade Pitch Sensor Fault 31 11/9/2010 Simulation Results Fault No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Detection Time 3 Ts 819.4 Ts 3 Ts 12.4 Ts 187.4 Ts r_m2 2 Ts g_m2 5050 Ts 1573 Ts 1 Ts N/A False Alarm Rate 0.091/105 0.046/105 0.046/105 0.068/105 0.159/105 0 0.182/105 0.022/105 0 N/A Missed Detection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 False Alarm Clearance Time 2.9 Ts 2.3 Ts 2.4 Ts 18.8 Ts 17.5 Ts 0 3.9 Ts 3.2 Ts 0 N/A Sensor Faults Pitch Act. Faults Generator F. Drivetrain F. Failed Design Specifications • Fault 2: Pitch angle sensor scale factor can only be detected in Region 3 • Fault 4 and 5: Rotor speed sensor faults – Std. deviation of noise on rotor speed measurement is about 10% of rated rotor speed – High order, low pass filtering results in slow detections • Fault 6 and 7: Pitch actuator faults – Turbine needs to be in Region 3 – Controllers must generate commands at mid-frequency range • Fault 9: Drivetrain efficiency drop by 5% – Wind speed measurement has a bias about 10-15% of the measurement 32 11/9/2010 Research Problems • Modeling – Development of low-fidelity, control oriented models for turbine interactions in a wind farm – Impact of modeling errors on turbine energy production. • Estimation and Control – Benefits/cost of sharing wind measurements across a wind farm with individual wind turbines. – Impact of additional sensors/actuators that provide the most performance improvement for the least increase in cost. – Application of aeroservoelastic control techniques to increase energy capture by enabling operation at higher wind speeds – Adaptation of wind turbine control algorithms to account for aging, degradation, seasonal change, etc. • Fault Detection and Isolation – Application of fault detection and isolation to enhance reliability, longevity while reducing operating cost of large wind turbines. 33...
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2011 for the course EE 523 taught by Professor Dr.hopkins during the Spring '11 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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