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Unformatted text preview: Test 2 Review Muscular Fitness Contractions Isometric no change in length Isotonic same load Concentric muscle shortening Eccentric muscle lengthening Strength Muscular Endurance Power # of reps in time Hyperplasia Hypertrophy* Est 1RM # of reps to exhaustion Isokinetic constant rate; same motion/same speed Muscle growth Physical Activity and Mental Health Positive correlation NIMH Consensus statements between activity and mental health Inverse relationship between fitness and psychopathology Exercise and pregnancy Positive effects Exercise is often prescribed for certain health conditions Depression (85% of physicians) Anxiety (60%) Older adults Higher activity report higher quality of life Physical Activity and Mental Health Mechanisms Distraction Quiet rest and exercise had similar effects on anxiety Exercise effect lasted longer Temperature Endorphins Hot shower decreased anxiety Activated by exercise Linked to exercise addiction Monoamine Norepinephrine most often studied Physical Activity and Mental Health Addiction When an individual ceases to be able to make choices (Peele) Staleness Response to overtraining? Approx. 60% of elite distance runners Overtraining Stimulus Symptoms Monitoring Variables Loss of performance, mood disturbance, etc. CK levels, muscle soreness, muscle glycogen, psychological changes Exercise and Stress Spielberger's model Psychobiological process College students School Finances Significant other Sources Environmental Physical Psychosocial Daily hassles Research consistently finds reductions in anxiety after exercise Does type matter? Does intensity matter? Carbohydrates 4 kcal/g Energy and digestion Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Fruit, honey Disaccharides Polysaccharides (complex carbs) Grains, beans, starchy vegetables Milk, sugar cane Carbohydrates Dietary fiber indigestible Two hormones raise polysaccharides Insoluble doesn't dissolve in water blood sugar Glucose released from liver into blood Triggered by glucagon and epinephrine Insulin drives glucose from blood to cells for use Excess glucose stored as glycogen or fat Soluble dissolves in water Whole grains, vegetables, some fruits (edible seeds) Lower blood sugar Oats, barley, legumes, fruit Protein 4 kcal/g Structure and regulation of body functions Body constituents Structural components Maintain fluid balance Acidbase balance Regulation of body processes Neurotransmitters Immune System Energy 20 amino acids Protein quality 9 essential get from diet Complementarity: combining 2 proteins to improve content of essential amino acids Each supplements the other's limiting amino acids Protein Biological value: foods with higher protein quality; % of protein that can be used by the body Limiting Amino Acids: 1st essential amino acid you run out of; halts protein synthesis Animal proteins: more BV, fat, and cholesterol; less fiber and CHO Plant proteins: less BV and fat, no cholesterol, and more fiber and CHO Lipids 9 kcal/g Primary storage form of energy Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated All bonds single Solid at room temp. Implicated in heart disease Animal fats One double bond Liquid at room temp. Olive & canola oil More than one dbl bond Liquid at room temp. Vegetable oils, fish oils, flax Lipids Function Fuel, storage form on energy, cell membranes, cholesterol Cholesterol: found only in animal products Makes steroid hormones Body can synthesize cholesterol; don't have to eat it Sterols (ring structures) Vitamins Essential Organic No energy Fat soluble (know sources and functions) Vitamin A vision, immune function Vitamin D necessary for calcium absorbtion Vitamin E
fruits and vegetables Water soluble (know Vitamin C B Vitamins sources and functions) Liver, milk, orange and yellow Fat soluble greater risk for toxicity Water soluble greater risk for deficiency Fortified milk, sun Minerals Inorganic Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Iron Electrolytes Charged molecules important for many bodily functions Sodium, potassium, chloride Questions? Flexibility Factors Activity level Gender Age Body size Joint Types of stretching Static stretching is Static Ballistic Functional flexibility dynamic usually recommended Stretching after exercise is generally more effective Muscular Physiology "Bundles of bundles" Motor unit Neuron and muscle cells it innervates "All or none" Actin and myosin Crossbridges Rowing action Fiber types Sliding filament theory Slow twitch (SO) Predominately aerobic Fast twitch (FG) Predominately Fast twitch (FOG) Aerobic and anaerobic
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- Spring '08