Unformatted text preview: ,A' i. “More bonds/fewer charges” ,
ii. paired charges
iii. negative formal charge on electronegative atom
iv. positive formal charge on electronegative atom if this affords a ﬁlled valence shell (fulﬁlls octet
mle) 4. Resonance forms must be valid Lewis structures and obey normal valency rules (no pentavalent carbonsl).
Remember conservation of net charge between forms. E. Isomers and structural formulas -You must be able to correctly draw and interpret bond line and skeletal structures from a molecular formula, compound
name, or condensed structure. V. The shapes of some simple molecules and VSEPR theory, molecular dipole moment and curved arrows.
VI. Acids and Bases - an introduction K0; A. The Arrhenius view ~ B. acid strength, Ka, and pKa 910‘ '- AME)“, C. Bronsted acids and bases (conjugate acids and conjugate bases) D. pKa’s to know, trends in acidity E. Lewis acids and bases ~You should know deﬁnitions for, and be able to apply, the following terms:
0 Bronsted/Lowry acid
‘ Bronsted/Lowry base
a Lewis acid
0 Lewis base
- Conjugate acid
I...‘ - Conjugate base
’ - pKa: the negative log of an analyte’s acid dissociation constant or, a more useful deﬁnition — - the pH at which the concentration of the analyte’s protonated form is equal to the
concentration of its conjugate base form -Use curved arrow notation to depict a Bronsted/Lowry or Lewis acid/base equilibrium process.
—Predict on which side an acid/base equilibrium lies (process moves toward weaker acid and base)
—Draw the conjugate acid or conjugate base of a given structure —Select Bronsted/Lowry or Lewis acid/base sites in a complex molecule -Remember that a lower pKa value indicates a more acidic substance and a weaker conjugate base \ form. (It is helpful to consider charge Wg pK trends.) KM VII. Functional Groups . \x
—Memorize the list of functional groups provided in textbook (Table 4.1 and handout). Be able to identify them as substituents in ) complex molecules. z‘
W 'U 5 \im‘ .
o * . 5 W' ‘5
Chapter 2 : Hydrocarbon Frameworks: Alkanes \ 9‘ ‘5 &- ﬁr DUN) b C 0 Valence bond theory (remember: the covalent bonding electrons are contributed by overlapping atomic orbitals and shared
between the contributing nuclei) - Molecular orbital theory (remember: bonds are a mathematical combination of atomic orbitals to form a new set of
molecular orbitals (MOs) that may span many atoms.) - o-bond ~ tic-bond ""‘--—- wkmﬁﬁ /’ A. Atom Hybridization and Molecular Geometry
A. sp3 ~ tetrahedral (only 0 bonds)
B. sp2 — trigonal planar (one 117 bond) ...
View Full Document
- Summer '08
- Organic chemistry