Unformatted text preview: C. sp — linear (two, mutually perpendicular Tl: bonds) ~ You should be able to predict the hybridization of atomic Orbitals given simple structures or appropriate structural
information. - You must be able to correlate hybridization with geometry and approximate bond angles. ° Be able to explain why n-bonds
are substantially weaker than o—bonds. - Be able to draw geometrically reasonable 3—D representations of structures using wedges/dashes as appropriate. B. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
-You should know defmitions for, and be able to apply, the following terms: 0 Saturated - Unsaturated - normal alkane (n-alkane) ' Constitutional isomers 0 Conﬁgurational isomers/Stereoisomers - Primary (10), secondary (2o), tertiary (30), and quaternary carbons and functional groups
' Methyl, methylene, and methine groups
' IUPAC (systematic) nomenclature -Use systematic nomenclature to name alkanes and cycloalkanes and be able to draw the
appropriate structure given the IUPAC name. -Know the names of alkane isomers Cl-C12 (see textbook Table 2.2) and the names of the corresponding alkyl groups (simply replace the alkane “—ane” sufﬁx with the alky “—yl”
sufﬁx). —Explain the correlation between alkane chain length and branching to physical properties
such as boiling point -Know the following common names for alky! substituents and be able to identify these
groups in molecules: isopropyl, sec-bury], isobutyl, tert-butyl, neopentyl Chapter 3 . Stereochemistg of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes A. Conformations of Alkanes
-You must be able to use Newman projections to represent conformational arrangements of alkanes. Using
the Newman projections, you should be able to construct a potential energy vs. dihedral angle diagram with the relative energies of the different conformers (e.g., anti/eclipsed/gaucheo reasonably approximated.
-You should know deﬁnitions for, and be able to apply, the following terms: - Conformer (conformational isomer) ‘ Dihedral Angle — how does this differ from a bond angle? ' Eclipsed Conformation ~ Staggered Conformation ’ Gauche Conformation - Anti (“anti”) - Steric Strain . Torsional (“eclipsing”) Strain — remember that this involves more than a steric effect
- Barrier to rotation B. Conformations of Cycloalkanes - You must be able to draw any of the low energy conformers of 3- to 6-membered rings. - Explain how “puckered” conformations lead to a decrease in ring strain compared to planar conformers.
What type(s) of strain is/are reduced with puckering? - You must be able to draw both chair conformers with axial and equatorial substituents pointing in the
proper directions and at the proper angles. ' - Note that the bonds sharing colors within each conformer must be perpendicular! ...
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- Summer '08
- Organic chemistry