is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical
purposes. One who practices engineering is called an
, and those licensed to
do so have formal designations such as Professional Engineer or Chartered Engineer.
Engineers use imagination, judgment, and reasoning to apply science, technology,
mathematics, and practical experience. The result is the design, production, and
operation of useful objects or processes. The broad discipline of engineering
encompasses a range of specialized subdisciplines that focus on the issues associated
with developing a specific kind of product, or using a specific type of technology.
The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the
constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. It is usually not enough
to build a technically successful product; it must also meet further requirements.
Constraints may include available resources, physical or technical limitations,
flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as
requirements for cost, marketability, producibility, and
understanding the constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits within
which a viable object or system may be produced and operated.
Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate experience to
find suitable solutions to a problem. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a
problem allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential
solutions. Usually multiple reasonable solutions exist, so engineers must evaluate the
different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets their
Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their
specifications prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes,
scale models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive tests, and stress tests.
Testing ensures that products will perform as expected. Engineers as professionals
take seriously their responsibility to produce designs that will perform as expected
and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include
Extracted from Wikipedia