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Unformatted text preview: BIPN 102, MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY II NAME:_ANSWER KEY Fall 2007 lst MIDTERM EXAM I.D. # November 2, 2007 Page 1 1. (19 points). Fill in the following table by marking an “X” for which muscles are contracting for each set of intrapleural and alveolar pressures, and an “I” or “E” or “O” for airflow to indicate inspiration, expiration or no airflow, respectively. If not possible, mark “X” for measurement error and briefly indicate why. If abnormal, indicate which condition exists. The atmospheric pressure is 560 mm Hg. PIP = 557 PIP = 557 PIP = 534 PIP = 590 PIP = 560 PIP = 561 PA = 561 PA = 560 PA = 542 PA = 597 PA = 560 PA = 557 - Nomechamsm o - known that can P", c ot cause PIP >PATM counteract - — X elastic Alveoli & — recoil bronchioles — collase Dia hra Internal Intercostals Sternocleidomastoids External Intercostals Abdominals Scalenes No muscles contract Abnormal Measurement error Airflow and PA < PATM E % lllilél 2. (13 points). The following graph shows the result of a spirometry test of a patient that came into the ER. A) (3 points) Label the values indicated by the arrows with the correct lung volumes or capacities. 6 PVC 5 (Forced Q?act¢7> Volume 4 YourPatient (L) 3 , \i 2 RESIAUAL VOWHt Normal 1 2 3 4 5 6 time (sec) B) (10 points) Indicate whether lung compliance of the patient is increased or decreased, and which lung volumes and capacities are abnormal in the patient and in what direction (increased or decreased). Compliance: INCREASED, causing excessive airway compression during forced expiration Total Lung Capacity: INCREASED Vital Capacity: DECREASED Residual Volume: INCREASED Functional Residual Capacity: INCREASED BIPN 102, MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY II NAME:_ANSWER KEY Fall 2007 lst MIDTERM EXAM I.D. # November 2, 2007 Page 2 3. (6 points). A) Welcome to the year 2070 where the relationship between development and genetics is completely understood. So you decide to design yourself a clone of yourself, but cooler. Maybe with a respiratory tract 4 times as long as yours? How about the radius of the tract is 1/2 of the size of yours? Yes, both excellent ideas. . . but you should probably keep the flow the same. How should the pressure gradient change to keep the flow of gases in your clone the same as yours? Show your calculations: FLOW = APar‘ / 8r]! , since r = '/2 and I = 4 , AP must increase 64-fold (1 6.x for the radius decrease and 4x for the length increase) 7W1 B) (4 points). In your somewhat short-sightedness you thought giant alveoli for the clone would also be a good idea, 4 times the diameter of yours. Calculate the pressure change compared to your alveoli using LaPlace’s law. P = 2T/r , SINCE r INCREASED B Y4 P DECREASED BY 4 C) (3 points). List the main component of lung surfactant and indicate by how much it should change the surface tension in order to have the pressure in the cloned alveoli be the same as in yours? DIPALMI T 0 YLPHOSPHA T IDYLCHOLINE, DPPC, should DECREASE so that T will INCREASE by 4. 4. (8 points). During a heatwave in Halloween, when you were wearing your wolfman costume that didn’t let you dissipate heat you could only cool yourself by panting, increasing your respiratory frequency from 12/min to 48/min. Your normal tidal volume and dead space volumes are the normal \ adult values. What do you need to change and to what new value in order to maintain the same alveolar Ag P02 and PC02? Show your calculations. VA = (Vtid -— Vdead) freq = (500 — 150)]2 = 4200 mMnin Vtidhot = 4200/48 + 150 = 87.5 + 1 5 0. Decrease tidal volume from 500 to 237.5 mL 5. (10 points). Mr. LeTired jumps into his bed and lies down on his back. Indicate with an up—arrow (T) or down-arrow (l) which of the following parameters in the indicated portions of the lung are larger or smaller compared to the middle of the lung. — Anterior Ventral ___- Lun blood flow ___— \g _— o Ill—___— % ___- BIPN 102, MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY II NAME:_ANSWER KEY Fall 2007 lst MIDTERM EXAM I.D. # November 2, 2007 Page 3 6. (12 points). An Eskimo lives near the top of Mount Denali in Alaska, where the atmospheric pressure is 397 mm Hg, eats no carbohydrates, only seal fat. Calculate both his inspired and alveolar §POL His alveolar PC02 is 20 mm Hg due to hyperventilation. Round your values to the nearest integer. \EP102=(Patm — 47) % 02 = 350 x 0.21 = 73.5 mm Hg (73 or 74 is ok) V PA02= P102 - PAC02/ R = 73.5 — 20/0.7 = 73.5 —- 28.6 = 44.9 mm Hg ( 44 or 45 is ok) 7. (8 points). Write Fick’s equation for gas exchange and indicate which parameter(s) are changed (T or i) during: Flow = (APgas Area D) / thickness A) moderate exercise compared to rest in a normal individual: éFlow T because area T due to increased arterial pressure (exercise) which recruits and distends capillaries ‘V S B) a patient with advanced pulmonary fibrosis: K Flow J, because thickness is T (and also APgas may be decreased due to hypoventilation) C) a patient during a severe asthmatic attack: Flow 1 because APgas decreases due to hypoventilation 8. (6 points). A. Hb in a pulmonary vein. B. Hb in the coronary vein of a person climbing Mt. Everest after prolonged adaptation to the high altitude. C. Hb in the umbilical vein of the fetus. D. Hb in the gulmonary artery. E. Myoglobin. F. Cytochrome oxidase. Order, from highest to lowest, the affinities for oxygen of the above proteins under the given 3v conditions. Write the sequence of letters that denote each condition. No points after the first wrong answer: F>E>C>D>A>B 9. (14 points). Diagram the pathway, reactions, and ion movements that C02 undergoes upon entering a pulmonary capillary. Indicate the substrates, products, enzyme and transporter involved. SEE BOTTOM OF FIG. 18-14 OF SILVERTHORN § HC03' enters red cells in exchange for CI' , binds a proton and forms H2C03 which decomposes to C02 and H20 via carbonic anhydrase, carbaminpo releases C02 and C02 diffuses out of the red cells and into the alveolar space. ...
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