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Unformatted text preview: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 25, NO. 3, JULY 2010 1501 Cyber Security and Power System CommunicationEssential Parts of a Smart Grid Infrastructure Gran N. Ericsson , Senior Member, IEEE Abstract The introduction of smart grid solutions imposes that cyber security and power system communication systems must be dealt with extensively. These parts together are essential for proper electricity transmission, where the information infrastruc- ture is critical. The development of communication capabilities, moving power control systems from islands of automation to to- tally integrated computer environments, have opened up new pos- sibilities and vulnerabilities. Since several power control systems have been procured with openness requirements, cyber secu- rity threats become evident. For refurbishment of a SCADA/EMS system, a separation of the operational and administrative com- puter systems must be obtained. The paper treats cyber security issues, and it highlights access points in a substation. Also, infor- mation security domain modeling is treated. Cyber security issues are important for smart grid solutions. Broadband communi- cations open up for smart meters, and the increasing use of wind power requires a smart grid system. Index Terms Communication systems, control systems, cyber security, information security, IT security, power system commu- nication, power system control, power systems, SCADA, security, smart grid, wide-area networks. I. INTRODUCTION T HE concept of smart grid  has become a hype. It has received considerable momentum during the recent years, and this is expected to develop even more. Critical parts here are the cyber security issues and the power system commu- nication (PSC) systems, which are stressed in this paper. The use of electricity is of paramount importance to our society, and the need for power supply is increasing. Here, the concerns on phys- ical security are quite mature and easy to grasp, whereas now the digital threats are increasing. By means of the PSC capabilities, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems and substations are now interconnected with other systems. These communications take place both over dedicated line and over the Internet. Also in the earlier projects, information and Infor- mation Technology (IT) security issues were not considered to a great extent, or not at all. Manuscript received December 01, 2009. First published April 22, 2010; cur- rent version published June 23, 2010. Paper no. TPWRD-00884-2009. The author is with Svenska Kraftnt (Swedish National Grid), Sundbyberg 17224, Sweden (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)....
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