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summarysheet4 - Summary Sheet Name: Julia Mackler THE...

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Summary Sheet Name: Julia Mackler THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: THE HEART 1. Summarize the pericardium and heart wall by: Describing the pericardium: A double-walled membranous sac that surrounds the heart (lubricates it to decrease friction) The space between each of the layers of the pericardium is filled with serous fluid. There are two different types: (1) Fibrous pericardium: loose and superficial and (2) Serous pericardium: deep to the fibrous pericardium and made of two layers = Visceral pericardium, Parietal pericardium Describing the location and function of pericardial fluid: It’s function is to reduces friction within the pericardium. Located between the two layers of serous membrane the pericardial cavity. The pericardial fluid lubricates the two membranes (epicardial surface) with each. Its function is to reduces friction within the pericardium. Comparing the thickness of the myocardium of the four cardiac chambers and explaining their variation: caused by variations in the amount of myocardium present. The thickness variation reflects the amount of force each chamber needs in order to work, example : the left ventricle is the strongest so it is the one with the thickest layer of myocardium. 2. Describe the sequence of heart chambers, heart valves, and blood vessels a drop of blood encounters from the time it flows into the heart from the venae cavae until it reaches the aorta. a. oxygenated blood from the lungs travels through pulmonary veins and enters the left side of the heart into the left atrium. b. From the left atrium blood goes through the valve called the left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid valve) into the left ventricle. c. Heart contracts and blood flows into the aorta… the atrioventricular valve closes and blocks the blood from going back into the atrium. The aorta is closed off form the left ventricle by a one-way valve known as the aortic semilunar valve. d. Blood that flows into the arterial system returns to the heart… it goes through a series of veins and enters the right side of the heart. e. The superior vena cava drains the upper body and the inferior vena cava drains the lower body (bring deoxygenated blood into the right atrium) f. Blood goes from the right atrium into the right ventricle through the atriventricular valve (tricuspid valve)
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g. Blood goes from the right ventricle to the pulmonary semilunar valve and then into a single pulmonary artery (pulmonary trunk)… arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs. 3. Distinguish between the systemic and pulmonary circulations and state which heart chambers and vessels contain deoxygenated or oxygenated blood. a.
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summarysheet4 - Summary Sheet Name: Julia Mackler THE...

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