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Hull and Skinner - Neobehaviorism Hull and Skinner Clark...

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Neobehaviorism: Hull and Skinner
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Clark Hull Hypothetico-deductive method Method for establishing postulates from which experimentally testable conclusions can be deduced Formulations are determined a priori and are subject to experimental tests
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Drives The basis of motivation was a state of bodily need that arouse from a deviation from optimal biological conditions “drive” was Hull’s intervening variable Drive was defined as a stimulus arising from a state of tissue need that arouses or activates behavior Reduction or satisfaction of a drive is the sole basis for reinforcement The strength of the drive can be empirically determined by the length of deprivation, or by the intensity, strength, and energy expenditure of the resulting behavior Hull placed greater emphasis on response strength than length of deprivation
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Two kinds of drive Primary drives are associated with innate biological need states and are vital to the organism’s survival (e.g., food, water, air, etc.) Learned or secondary drives relate to situations or environmental stimuli associated with the reduction of primary drives and so may become drives themselves
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Learning Learning through the law of primary reinforcement Almost a restatement of Thorndike’s law The law states that when a S-R relationship is followed by a reduction in a bodily need The only difference is that reward or reinforcement is not defined in terms of satisfaction but rather in terms of reducing a primary need
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S-R connections are strengthened by the number of reinforcements that have occurred The strength of the S-R connection is habit strength Habit strength is a function of reinforcement and refers to the persistence of the conditioning
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B. F. Skinner Skinner’s behaviorism Skinner’s behaviorism was devoted to the study of responses. He was concerned with describing rather than explaining behavior “I never attacked a problem by constructing a hypothesis. I never deduced theorems or submitting them to experimental check. So far as I can see I had no preconceived model of behavior….”
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