Sigmund Freud-The early years

Sigmund Freud-The early years - Sigmund Freud The early...

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Sigmund Freud: The early years
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Psychoanalysis was distinct from mainstream psychological thoughts Psychoanalysis was neither a product of the universities nor a pure science but arose within the traditions of medicine and psychiatry Psychoanalysis was not (and still is not) a school of thought directly comparable with the others we have studied in this course
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Discussion of the unconscious was very fashionable amongst the European intellectuals during the 1880s Vienna was very different from Freud’s descriptions Freud was not the first to discuss seriously the unconscious human mind. He conceded that writers and philosophers before him had dealt with it extensively but claimed that he had discovered a “scientific” way to study it
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Antecedent influences on psychoanalysis Three major sources of influence Philosophical speculations about unconscious psychological phenomena Evolutionary theory Early ideas about psychopathology
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Philosophical antecedents Early thoughts Leibnitz developed an idea he called monadology. Monads were not physical atoms but were nevertheless considered to be the individual elements of all reality Monads were not composed wholly of matter. Each monad was an unextended psychic entity, mental in nature, which nevertheless had some properties of physical matter When enough monads were grouped together, they created an extension
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Monads represent all being and activity Monads do not interact. They are like two clocks. Physical and mental monads run in parallel Mental monads have different levels of activity, so there is a continuum of consciousness-unconsciousness from mental event events that are totally conscious to others that are fully unconscious At some point on this continuum, there is a threshold at which the status of a mental event changes
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Lesser degrees of consciousness were called petites perceptions The conscious realization of these (reaching the threshold) was described as apperception Waves breaking on the beach is an apperception
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