Sec_2 - 2-1 Lipid Catabolism for ATP Generation...

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2 - 1 L i p i d C a t a b o l i s m f o r A T P G e n e r a t i o n Triglycerides Fatty acids AcCoA CO 2 Phospholipids Glycerol CO 2 (Phospho) Lipases β - oxidation Glycolysis TCA cycle ETC TCA cycle ETC NADH NADH FADH 2 FADH 2 ATP ATP 1. L i p a s e s H 2 C O C R 1 O HC H 2 C O C O R 2 O CR 3 O H 2 C O C R 1 O HC H 2 C O C O R 2 OH H 2 C OH HC H 2 C O C O R 2 O 3 O H 2 C OH HC H 2 C O C O R 2 OH H 2 C OH HC H 2 C OH OH R 3 COO R 1 COO R 1 COO R 2 COO R 3 COO slow step Lipases are secreted in the pancreas. Glycerol diacyl glyceride diacyl glyceride triacyl glyceride monoacyl glyceride
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2-2 CH 2 OH CHOH CH 2 OH Glycerol Glycerol phosphate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate CH 2 OH CHOH CH 2 OPO 3 CH 2 OH C CH 2 OPO 3 O ATP ADP NAD + NADH + H + Glycerol kinase Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase Glycolysis, TCA cycle and ETC to generate 17 ATP (see page 1 - 26). 3 CO 2 2. P h o s p h o l i p a s e s ( P L ) H 2 C O C R 1 O HC H 2 C O C O R 2 O P O O O R 3 H 2 C HC H 2 C O C O R 2 O P O O O R 3 H 2 C O C R 1 O HC H 2 C OH O P O O O R 3 H 2 C O C R 1 O HC H 2 C O C O R 2 OH OH H 2 C O C R 1 O HC H 2 C O C O R 2 O P O O O R 1 COO R 2 COO R 3 OPO 3 R 3 OH 2 PL A1 PL A2 PL C PL D Pi H 2 O Phosphatidate phosphatase a phosphatidate diacyl glycerol R 1 COO + R 2 COO + glycerol Lipases Phospholipases are common components of bee and wasp poisons and snake venoms 2 2
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2 - 3 3. β - o x i d a t i o n β -oxidation is the process by which fatty acids are oxidized to AcetylCoA and reduced electron carrier ( NADH and FADH 2 ). To complete the oxidation of all carbons to CO 2 , the AcCoA is metabolized in the TCA cycle and the electron transport chain transforms the reduced electron carrier into ATP C 15 H 31 COOH + 23 O 2 16 CO 2 + 16 H 2 O palmitic acid G' o = -9773 kJ/mol to be compared with C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O glucose G' o = -2868 kJ/mol The reasons for there being so much more energy available in a molecule of palmitic acid include: 1. the larger number of carbons and 2. the larger number of oxidations of each carbon required.
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Sec_2 - 2-1 Lipid Catabolism for ATP Generation...

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