Midterm__1_Notes

Midterm__1_Notes - 1 Human Sexuality Midterm#1 Study Notes...

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1 Human Sexuality Midterm #1 Study Notes Chapter One – Sexuality in Perspective Sex and Gender Sex – definition can depend on the context in which it is used; sexual behaviours, reproduction, etc. Sexual Behaviour – produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm Alfred Kinsey defined sex as “an act that leads to orgasm” – this is not accurate (older definition) Gender – being identified as either a male or a female o Gendered Naming – names can indicate gender (not definitive). (Cock vs. hen) Sexual Terminology Erotic – arousal Foreplay – mutual sexual stimulation that precede coitus Human Sexuality – ways in which we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings Coitus – sexual intercourse The History of Understanding Sexuality: Religion and Sciences Religion The source of values and ethics regarding sexuality and, as such, is a powerful influence on the sexual attitudes and behaviour of many individuals Until the last 100 years religion has been the sole (or largest) provider of information about sex and sexuality (in some cultures it still does) Believed random shit Greeks – humans used to be double creature things that were double male, double female, or both. Homosexuality was excepted (both male and female); 15 th century Christians – wet dreams, sexual dysfunction, and sexual lust because of witchcraft; Muslims – sex is finest pleasures of life Science Scientific study of sex began in the 19 th century Anton van Leeuwenhoek and John Ham – discovered sperm! 1875 – Oskar Hertwig – viewed fertilization of an urchin egg Sigmund Freud – founder of psychiatry and psychoanalysis, made major advances in the understanding of human sexuality Margaret Mead (1901 – 1978) – cultural anthropologist, “Coming of Age in Samod (1928)” – females married later in life, had premarital sex, challenged western norms; “Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies” Arapesh – mean and women had peaceful temperaments; Mundugamor – men and women equally aggressive; Tchambuli – men more interested in primping and looking pretty than women Freeman – disputed M. Mead, anthropologist, very likely that he was wrong,
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2 “critiqued” Henry Havelock Ellis (1859 – 1939) – lesser known contributor to the scientific study of sex compiled vast collection of information on sexuality: Studies in the Psychology of Sex (1896) – believed women to be sexual creatures like men – sexologists, virgin until marriage, impotent until 60, sight of women urinating aroused him, Sexual Inversion (1897), homosexuality, developed concepts of autoerotism and narcissism Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840 – 1902) – psychiatrist, “Physchopatia Sexualism”, interested in “pathological” sexuality- coined concepts sadism, masochism, and pedophilia, types of sexual deviance: 1. Paradoxia – sexual desire at wrong time in life; 2. Anesthesia – insufficient desire; 3. Hyperesthesia excessive desire; 4. Paraesthesia –
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