Chapter 9 – Thinking and Intelligence Classical conditioning behavior is reflexive, operant conditioning is voluntary. In classical conditioning, there always has to be a stimulus, behavior is almost forced. In operant conditioning, the focus is on the observable behavior, the behavior is voluntary. Can we define intelligence? •“An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment.” (textbook definition) •the way intelligence is expressed in behavior varies from culture to culture. •Individual differences refer to the consistent, stable ways people are different from each other. Can we measure intelligence? •If no, where does that leave us? •If yes, what do we need to do? oDevelop some kind of comparison Developing a Test •Standardization – uniform procedures for administration & scoring.
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