sex differentiation 1

sex differentiation 1 - Sexuality, Gender, and Sex...

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Unformatted text preview: Sexuality, Gender, and Sex Differen2a2on February 17th, 2011 Lecture Overview 1.  Process of Sex Differen2a2on 1.  (Typical) Fetal Development 2.  Varia2ons in Fetal Development 2.  Sex, Gender Iden2ty and Gender Typing Working Defini2ons •  Sex – refers to the inborn biological and physiological characteris2cs that relate to reproduc2on •  Gender – traits and roles considered appropriate for males and females •  Determined by culture and society •  Sexuality – how people experience the ero2c and express themselves as sexual beings Objec2ves of next 3 classes… •  Challenge the assump2ons that underlie the meanings aTached to sex, gender, and sexuality •  Problema2ze the no2on that: –  These categories are stable –  That they exist in binaries **sex is poli2cal Process of Sex Differen2a2on in Fetal Development Assump2ons of Sex •  If an organism has a sex, it is either male or female •  There are only two sexes •  There is a certain rela2onship between sexual anatomy and gender iden2ty •  Within a given individual, sex is always permanent Is gender iden2ty predicted by an individual’s chromosomal makeup, prenatal hormones, external genitalia, assigned sex or some combina2on of these factors? How are the sexes differen2ated? Female Chromosomes Gonads Gonadal Hormones Internal Reproduc<ve Structures External Genitalia Sex Label Gender of Rearing XX ovaries estrogens Fallopian tubes, uterus Clitoris, labia, vagina female feminine Male XY testes androgens Vas deferens, seminal vesicles Penis, scrotum male masculine (Typical) Fetal Development •  23 pairs of chromosomes in the body –  22 – autosomes –  1 – sex chromosome •  Mother always provides an X •  Father can provide X or Y •  XX = Female XY = Male (Typical) Fetal Development •  Un2l about 6 weeks, male and female fetuses are virtually iden2cal •  Each human has two sets of internal reproduc2ve systems –  Female – mullerian ducts –  Male – wolfian ducts •  Sex glands (gonads) (Typical) Fetal Development Males: –  Gene on the Y chromosome causes the sex glands to grow and develop into testes –  Produc2on of several androgens •  Testosterone – internal •  Dihydrotestosterone  ­ external –  By 12 ­14 weeks the process is complete (Typical) Fetal Development Females: –  Not as much is known –  Absence of androgen produc2on –  Estrogens do not func2on the same in females as androgens in males •  Female genital structures develop largely BEFORE ovaries are formed (Typical) Fetal Development •  Sex differen2a2on is a process that is influenced by both gene0c and hormonal factors •  Not necessarily a difference in kind but in degree (Typical) Fetal Development •  The Brain –  Differences in brain structure and func2oning? –  Difficulty related to the combina2on of biological and social influences –  Lateraliza2on Where sex is differen2ated 1.  Development of internal reproduc2ve system 2.  Development of the gonads 3.  Produc2on of hormones 4.  Development of external genitals Varia2ons in Fetal Development •  1.7% have biological varia2on from typical fetal development •  Intersexuality – collec2ve term used for a number of specific varia2ons of biological sex •  Intersexed – individuals with those varia2ons •  Examples Varia2ons in Fetal Development Missing or extra chromosome  ­  Turner’s Syndrome (XO)  ­   ­   ­   ­  Lack of androgens and estrogens Does not develop internal reproduc2ve structures External – female Male or female? Varia2ons in Fetal Development Prenatal hormones and sex differen2a2on Androgen Insensi0vity (XY)  ­  can be complete or par2al (CAIS or PAIS)  ­  Body is unable to absorb androgens  ­   ­   ­   ­  External female genitalia No uterus or ovaries Most show preference for tradi2onally feminine roles Olympic debate Varia2ons in Fetal Development Prenatal hormones and sex differen2a2on Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (XX)  ­  Missing enzyme leads to androgen buildup during fetal development  ­  Internal female reproduc2ve structures  ­  Either external male genitalia or ambiguous  ­  Object of study for gender iden2ty and sexual orienta2on Intersex hTp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVaMKMqcL6o&NR=1 hTp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XEir4IWHYrY&feature=related Problema2zing Sex •  If an organism has a sex, it is either male or female •  There are only two sexes •  There is a certain rela2onship between sexual anatomy and gender iden2ty •  Within a given individual, sex is always permanent Sex, Gender Iden2ty, and Gender Typing •  For most, gene2c, hormonal, and anatomical aspects of sex are congruent Female Chromosomes Gonads Gonadal Hormones Internal Reproduc2ve Structures External Genitalia Sex Label Gender of Rearing XX ovaries estrogens Fallopian tubes, uterus Clitoris, labia, vagina female feminine Male XY testes androgens Vas deferens, seminal vesicles Penis, scrotum male masculine Is gender iden2ty predicted by an individual’s chromosomal makeup, prenatal hormones, external genitalia, assigned sex, or some combina2on of these or other factors? What we’ve learned •  Chromosomes seem to have liTle or direct effect on gender iden2ty and sexual orienta2on •  Gender iden2ty seems to largely depend on social factors –  Study of CAH individuals •  Doesn’t imply the gender iden2ty and gender typing are unrelated to biological sex John/Joan Case •  Story of David Reimer hTp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeSvkE9ZtHk&feature=related Emerging Ques2ons 1.  How do the experiences and existences of intersexed individuals change our understanding of sex? 2.  How are intersexed individuals treated within society? 1.  How is this addressed through surgical procedures? Surgery or no surgery? •  Should intersex individuals have surgery at young ages? hTp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHQJmPbHSdM&feature=related •  Posi2on of the Intersex Society of North America Sex as a Social Construc2on? “…as long as ‘female’ and ‘male’ are seen as external, objec2ve, dichotomous, physical facts, sex and gender will be the basis for discrimina2on and oppression. Unless and un2l gender, in all of its manifesta2ons, including the physical, is seen as a social construc2on, ac2on that will radically change our incorrigible proposi2ons cannot occur” (Kessler & McKenna, 1978) ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2011 for the course PSYCH 170 taught by Professor Harding during the Spring '09 term at CUNY Hunter.

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