12water_poll - Water Issues: What is more important...

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Water Issues: What is more important Electricity or Water? Topics: Volume, Pollution, Treatment Unlike Air - We Do NOT Live in an Ocean of Water
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But – Volume available? – Potomac _ MD vs VA Source – pipe, well?, ground, surface Cost – how much do you use? Legal/Regulatory – CWA, SDWA Quality – In Stream Supply Source, Drinking Water Coliforms, BOD, Nutrient Removal toxics – lead, arsenic
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Where is all the water? Global Water Distribution Location Per Cent Oceans 97.3 Icecaps, Glaciers 2.1 Ground Water (to 4000m) 0.6 Fresh Water Lakes and Rivers <0.01
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USA Fresh Water Distribution Location Volume % of Total Cubic Miles Fresh Water Glaciers 16 0.05 Fresh Water Lakes 4,500 13.0 River Channels 12 0.03 Ground Water – Shallow 15,000 43.2 most Ground Water – Deep 15,000 43.2 Soil Moisture 150 0.43 Atmosphere 45 0.13
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Industrial, Agriculture, Cooling ~ 88% About 400 billion gallons per day Domestic ~ 8% Irrigation 40% Thermoelectric 39% Domestic 8% Industry 90%
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23-24% of withdrawal Consumption (Not returned) Mainly Irrigation 82%
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Reduced flushing over time – was 41% in household Mainly sanitation – 69-84% (consumed <5%)
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What do WE use water for?? Water Supply – municipal, industrial, irrigation Aquatic Life – Fish and Shellfish Recreation – swimming, boating Shipping Hydroelectric Power Disposal of Waste Aesthetics Is there a fundamental difference in uses of water?
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43% 47% 41% 39% 46% 51% Impaired Waters = 45% = 45% in 2000 Not supporting Designated Use
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Criterion – 200 fecal coliforms / 100 ml Other Problems Sediment Metals esp Hg Low DO Nutrients
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Water Supply Considerations Public Health Drinking Water Standards Safe Drinking Water Act –SDWA Primary – MCL Protect public health Maximum Contaminant Level Secondary – Taste, odor, appearance I - USE BEST SOURCE Available Quality, Quantity, Consistency 2 - Protect source from contamination 3 - Provide adequate treatment 4 - Survey source to locate and identify hazards
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II – Types of Standards Physical Chemical Radiological MICROBIOLOGICAL Indicator Organisms - Coliforms
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12water_poll - Water Issues: What is more important...

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