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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Introduction to Nonverbal Communication
COM 259 Concepts, Curiosities and Explanations Importance of NonVerbal Importance of NonVerbal Behavior to Communication
6065% of social meaning is derived from NonVerbal communication Information Information Anything people use to gain predictability about the environment and to guide their behavior. What Counts as What Counts as Communication? Message Perspective (Burgoon) Communication occurs when messages are exchanged that are at least one of the following: Sent intentionally, or Typically interpreted as being sent intentionally, or Have shared social meaning within a relationship, group or culture Idiosyncratic behaviors Idiosyncratic behaviors Aren’t communication unless observers know they’re meaningful “How are you doing?” “I’m GREAT!” ProcessOriented Perspective ProcessOriented Perspective Guerrero and Floyd (2006) Considers: Intent to communicate a message Reception as having meaning Accuracy of interpretation Focus on NonVerbal Focus on NonVerbal Communication A Working Definition Messages other than words Sent intentionally or unintentionally That are typically interpreted by others as having meaning NonVerbal Communication NonVerbal Communication Has SocioCultural Attributions Some examples of NonVerbal behavior that may or may not be meaningful: Blushing Yawning Smiling Attire Talking quickly Silence NonVerbals are interpreted by the receiver relative to multiple concurrent factors: Interpretation Interpretation With meaning arising from: Interplay with concurrent nonverbals Interplay with concurrent verbal behavior (if any) Relationship or history of parties Knowledge about sender Context, culture and receiver’s experience Codes – Types of NonVerbals Codes – Types of NonVerbals Nonverbal messages are organized into “Codes” Each code is communicated by a specific nonverbal channel Codes do not operate in a vacuum Kinesics Kinesics Kinesics – messages sent by the body Movement Posture Gesture Facial expression, “microexpressions” Vocalics/Paralanguage Vocalics/Paralanguage Voice qualities Paralanguage: Pitch Speaking rate Accents and accentuation Pauses Hesitations Silence “Halo Effect” “Contact Codes” Proxemics Physical distance and bodily orientation, “personal space” Territoriality – Haptics – Physical contact and Touching behaviors How location of communicators affects their interactions A human need Time Codes Time Codes Chronemics – use and perceptions of time Time preferences Punctuality Perceptions of time, e.g., meaning attributed to durations of contact Place Codes Place Codes Place or Environmental codes include Architectural design Lighting (e.g., candles) Color Sound Furniture arrangement Functions of Nonverbal Functions of Nonverbal messages Codes attend to categories of nonverbal behavior Functions attend to the meanings that are attributed to specific behaviors Meanings typically arise from behaviors in combination Combination of multiple codes Codes interacting with verbal communication and contexts Functions Examples Functions Examples Forming impressions and judgments Relational messages May contribute to DTR Emotional expression Deception Power relations and persuasion “Social Intelligence” On BNet.com On BNet.com “How to Ace a Job Interview: the Body Language of Business” http://www.bnet.com/242213950_23349736.html?tag= http://www.bnet.com/242213950_23349736.html?tag "How to use Mirroring to Build Rapport" http://www.bnet.com/242213950_23 372575.html?tag=videomore;videoplaylist Context Effects Cultural Context Effects Cultural Cultural attributions are socially constructed meanings Arising within contexts: Nationality and “Race” Class, rank or status Occupation Gender Sexual orientation Context Effects Relational Context Effects Relational Influence how nonverbal communication is enacted and interpreted Relate to Type and duration of communicators’ relationship Expectations, assumptions and beliefs of the communicators about their relationship Context Effects Situational Context Effects Situational Affect the performance and interpretation of nonverbal behaviors Public vs. Private Formal vs. Informal Time: of day, pressures Levels of comfort or anxiety attributed to the situation Multiple NonVerbals Multiple NonVerbals Multiple NonVerbal communication behaviors will accompany communication transactions Meaning is attributed to NonVerbals in relation to other NonVerbal behavior Big Picture Big Picture Verbal and NonVerbal behaviors require common knowledge for interpretation Verbal and NonVerbal behaviors interact in creating meaning, whether intentional or unintentional 6065% of social meaning is derived from NonVerbal communication On Youtube.com On Youtube.com
“Michael Clayton” scene http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=A59RJv8SpfE ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2011 for the course COM 259 taught by Professor Miner during the Spring '08 term at ASU.
- Spring '08
- Nonverbal Communication