Nonverbal Communication Introduction-1 short version_1

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Introduction to Nonverbal Communication COM 259 Concepts, Curiosities and Explanations Importance of Non­Verbal Importance of Non­Verbal Behavior to Communication 60­65% of social meaning is derived from Non­Verbal communication Information Information Anything people use to gain predictability about the environment and to guide their behavior. What Counts as What Counts as Communication? Message Perspective (Burgoon) Communication occurs when messages are exchanged that are at least one of the following: Sent intentionally, or Typically interpreted as being sent intentionally, or Have shared social meaning within a relationship, group or culture Idiosyncratic behaviors Idiosyncratic behaviors Aren’t communication unless observers know they’re meaningful “How are you doing?” “I’m GREAT!” Process­Oriented Perspective Process­Oriented Perspective Guerrero and Floyd (2006) Considers: Intent to communicate a message Reception as having meaning Accuracy of interpretation Focus on Non­Verbal Focus on Non­Verbal Communication ­ A Working Definition Messages other than words Sent intentionally or unintentionally That are typically interpreted by others as having meaning Non­Verbal Communication Non­Verbal Communication Has Socio­Cultural Attributions Some examples of Non­Verbal behavior that may or may not be meaningful: Blushing Yawning Smiling Attire Talking quickly Silence Non­Verbals are interpreted by the receiver relative to multiple concurrent factors: Interpretation Interpretation With meaning arising from: Interplay with concurrent non­verbals Interplay with concurrent verbal behavior (if any) Relationship or history of parties Knowledge about sender Context, culture and receiver’s experience Codes – Types of Non­Verbals Codes – Types of Non­Verbals Nonverbal messages are organized into “Codes” Each code is communicated by a specific non­verbal channel Codes do not operate in a vacuum Kinesics Kinesics Kinesics – messages sent by the body Movement Posture Gesture Facial expression, “micro­expressions” Vocalics/Paralanguage Vocalics/Paralanguage Voice qualities Paralanguage: Pitch Speaking rate Accents and accentuation Pauses Hesitations Silence “Halo Effect” “Contact Codes” Proxemics ­ Physical distance and bodily orientation, “personal space” Territoriality – Haptics – Physical contact and Touching behaviors How location of communicators affects their interactions A human need Time Codes Time Codes Chronemics – use and perceptions of time Time preferences Punctuality Perceptions of time, e.g., meaning attributed to durations of contact Place Codes Place Codes Place or Environmental codes include Architectural design Lighting (e.g., candles) Color Sound Furniture arrangement Functions of Non­verbal Functions of Non­verbal messages Codes attend to categories of non­verbal behavior Functions attend to the meanings that are attributed to specific behaviors Meanings typically arise from behaviors in combination Combination of multiple codes Codes interacting with verbal communication and contexts Functions ­ Examples Functions ­ Examples Forming impressions and judgments Relational messages May contribute to DTR Emotional expression Deception Power relations and persuasion “Social Intelligence” On On “How to Ace a Job Interview: the Body Language of Business”­13950_23­349736.html?tag=­13950_23­349736.html?tag "How to use Mirroring to Build Rapport"­13950_23­ 372575.html?tag=video­more;video­playlist Context Effects ­ Cultural Context Effects ­ Cultural Cultural attributions are socially constructed meanings Arising within contexts: Nationality and “Race” Class, rank or status Occupation Gender Sexual orientation Context Effects ­ Relational Context Effects ­ Relational Influence how non­verbal communication is enacted and interpreted Relate to Type and duration of communicators’ relationship Expectations, assumptions and beliefs of the communicators about their relationship Context Effects ­ Situational Context Effects ­ Situational Affect the performance and interpretation of non­verbal behaviors Public vs. Private Formal vs. Informal Time: of day, pressures Levels of comfort or anxiety attributed to the situation Multiple Non­Verbals Multiple Non­Verbals Multiple Non­Verbal communication behaviors will accompany communication transactions Meaning is attributed to Non­Verbals in relation to other Non­Verbal behavior Big Picture Big Picture Verbal and Non­Verbal behaviors require common knowledge for interpretation Verbal and Non­Verbal behaviors interact in creating meaning, whether intentional or unintentional 60­65% of social meaning is derived from Non­Verbal communication On On “Michael Clayton” scene v=A59RJv8SpfE ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2011 for the course COM 259 taught by Professor Miner during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

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