Public speaking tools, presentations and visuals

Public speaking tools, presentations and visuals - COM 259...

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Unformatted text preview: COM 259 COM 259 From the Speaker’s Toolkit What is Speaking Anxiety? What is Speaking Anxiety? Trait Anxiety and Situational Anxiety Trait = Beliefs about yourself Situation = Weight of the occasion Advice for the Faint of Heart: Advice for the Faint of Heart: Calming Speaking Anxiety Prepare and practice, rehearse with a friend Warm up physically and mentally Plan an introduction that relaxes you and your audience Practice positive imagery and self talk “Rhetoritherapy” Help for the Long Run Identify reasonable speaking goals Such as improving delivery skills Specific behaviors and practices needed to achieve them Such as speaking clearly, making eye contact, posture and gesture Develop procedures for judging success with your goals Such as audience/instructor feedback Common Speech Types Common Speech Types Informative Purpose to impart knowledge and information Persuasive Purpose to move an audience to action or change in beliefs Introductory and special occasion Planning Planning Decide on a speech goal Analyze the audience: Why should they listen to you? Age Prior knowledge Psychological motivations Gather information Attitude toward subject and to you Beliefs, needs Organizing a Speech Organizing a Speech Topic Purpose (to inform or to persuade) Introduction Body, Main points, Support Transitions Conclusion Initial Sequence Initial Sequence Attention Getter geared to your audience Motivate (and continue to motivate) audience to listen Establish credibility and rapport “Thesis statement” Informative speech, thesis is your purpose for speaking Persuasive speech, thesis is your position Introduction Introduction A good introduction integrates Your purpose The occasion Your information Understanding the audience’s motivations, needs and interests Introduction: Style Introduction: Style Attention getter Depends on occasion, topic, purpose and audience Helps audience relate to you and the topic and want to listen A question Humor Story Dramatic statement Put an important fact in context Make a statistic relevant Examples Introduction: Purposes Introduction: Purposes Establish the topic Preview the main points Establish your credibility Build rapport Provide background information Define unfamiliar terms Describe materials Introduction: Techniques Introduction: Techniques Tell audience your goal: What’s the take away knowledge What you want to persuade them to think or do Tell audience how you plan to get there Ways to establish credibility Content Content Know your topic Do quality research Use relevant and credible sources Relate to your points Plan Transitions Plan Transitions Follow sequence of your preview Moving point to point “Now you know why I want to start my own business. Here’s my plan.” “The next thing to consider is the cost of the plan.” “So if leadership skills can be learned, how do we go about that?” “My next point may surprise you.” Other Transition Techniques Other Transition Techniques Keep your audience with you using Internal summaries Repetition Restatement Logical progressions Making Main Points Memorable Making Main Points Memorable Limit the number to 3 to 5 Keep them concise State them in a “parallel” style Similar phrasing (question, statement) Similar sentence structure Use familiar analogies, a rhyme or an acronym Topical Organizing an Organizing an Informative Speech Chronological Steve Jobs’ speech Career path speech Spatial or Geographical Causal Education systems around the world Effect­cause Cause­effect Organizing a Organizing a Persuasive Speech Claim pattern Claim, support ­ claim, support . . . Cause­effect Causal Problem­Solution Comparative advantages Criteria satisfaction Combining Patterns Combining Patterns Each main point may be organized using a different pattern Background information could be presented chronologically Descriptive information could be presented topically Problem information could be presented spatially Persuasion could be presented . . . Creating a Conclusion Creating a Conclusion Summarize Main ideas Support Refocus audience on your speech goal Reinforce the take­away Closing thought Help audience identify or buy in Why Rehearse? Why Rehearse? Builds confidence Reduces reliance on notes Assures the speech is coherent and convincing Assures you’re within your time limits Shows if you’ve missed anything Points for Style Points for Style Nonverbals Vary your cadence, pitch and intonation Gesture, posture, movement Smile, make eye contact Speak clearly and with the right volume How fast to speak? Pay attention to nonverbal feedback Visual Aids Visual Aids Quality Visual Aids • Aid listener recall • Spark listener interest • Speed listener comprehension • Decrease presentation time • Add to speaker credibility • Decrease speaker nervousness Audience Recall Verbal only Visual only Verbal and Visual After 3 hours 70% 70% 10% 72% 20% 85% 65% After 3 days Some Types of Aids Power Points Videos and video conferencing Whiteboards, flip charts, posters Objects, models, handouts Computer­aided collaboration Quality Visual Aids Quality Visual Aids Support and supplement Are not your script Are simple and memorable Don’t distract the listeners Start with a Blank Slate Start with a Blank Slate Establish an overall design theme Limit the number of slides Use transitions Easily readable font size and type Use color wisely Limit clip art and other distractions Font Sizes This is 54 Points This is 48 Points This is 36 Points This is 30 Points This is 24 Points This is 18 Points This is 14 Points This is 11 Points Design Rules for Text Visuals YOU SHOULD USE ONLY FOUR TO SIX LINES OF TYPE PER VISUAL. BE SURE TO LIMIT EACH LINE TO NOT MORE THAN FORTY CHARACTERS. IT IS BEST TO USE PHRASES RATHER THAN SENTENCES. IF YOU USE UPPER­ AND LOWERCASE TYPE, IT IS EASIER TO READ. USING A SIMPLE TYPE FACE IS EASIER TO READ AND DOES NOT DETRACT FROM YOUR PRESENTATION. IF YOU ALLOW THE SAME AMOUNT OF SPACE AT THE TOP OF EACH VISUAL, YOU MAKE IT EASIER FOR YOUR LISTENERS TO FOLLOW YOU. YOU CAN EMPHASIZE YOUR MAIN POINTS WITH COLOR AND LARGE TYPE. (How many rule violations can you find?) Design Rules for Text Visuals Design Rules for Text Visuals 4 to 6 lines of type per slide 40 characters per line Phrases not sentences Simple typeface Uniform use of upper and lower case Uniform margins Graphics Graphs, charts, diagrams, pictures Just enough words to clarify the visual Inflation Price Index 200 150 100 50 0 ‘4 8 ‘5 8 ‘6 9 ‘7 9 ‘2 9 ‘3 9 ‘8 9 ‘9 7 Year How Often Should You Run? 100 90 Fitness Percent 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Days a Week After School Care Day Care Center--60% Latch Key--11% Parental Care--9% Private Care--20% Power of Compounding $350,000 $300,000 $250,000 $200,000 $150,000 $100,000 $50,000 $0 10 yrs 20 yrs 30 yrs 40 yrs $5 $10 $15 Designing Graphs and Charts Limit data & eliminate grid lines> 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 American Flights Do mes tic Fo reign Apr il Ma y June July This 100 80 (In thousands) 60 40 20 0 ‘95 Not This 100 80 (In thousands) 60 40 20 Dividends 0 ‘95 Earnings Sales plummeted in 2000 Sales Sales plummeted in 2000 Sales ‘9 6 ‘9 7 ‘9 8 ‘9 9 00 ‘9 6 ‘9 7 ‘9 8 ‘9 9 00 Designing Graphs and Charts Limit data & eliminate grid lines Group data > 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 American Flights Do mes tic Fo reign Apr il Ma y June July Energy Costs Energy costs $ 3.6 Million This Other Expenses $ 1.2 million Not This Profits Energy Costs Energy costs $ 3.6 Million Profits Raw materials Consulting Advertising Debt interest Administrative Salaries Designing Graphs and Charts Limit data & eliminate grid lines Group data Make bars wider than space between > 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 American Flights Do mes tic Fo reign Apr il Ma y June July This SurfSail outsold competing sailboards in 2000 Surfsailors Boardbees Sandbaggers Sunscouts Not This SurfSail outsold competing sailboards in 2000 Surfsailors Boardbees Sandbaggers Sunscouts Designing Graphs and Charts Limit data & eliminate grid lines Group data Make bars wider than space between them Eliminate data points (unless relevant) > 350 300 250 200 150 100 Apr il Ma y June July 400 American Flights Do mes tic Fo reign This 100 80 (In thousands) 60 40 20 0 ‘95 Earnings Not This 100 80 (In thousands) 60 40 20 0 ‘95 Earnings Earnings remain stable as sales fluctuate Sales Earnings remain stable as sales fluctuate Sales ‘9 6 ‘9 7 ‘9 8 ‘9 9 00 ‘9 6 ‘9 7 ‘9 8 ‘9 9 00 Designing Graphs and Charts Limit data and eliminate grid lines Group data Make bars wider than space between them Eliminate data points 400 Always use headings > 350 300 250 200 150 100 American Flights Do mes tic Fo reign Apr il Ma y June July General Design Principles General Design Principles Contrast Avoid similar elements Repeat design elements Visually connect elements Closely group related items Alignment Connect Group Color and Visual Aids For unrelated items, use different hues > Hue Yellow Yellow-orange Orange Redorange Red Redviolet Violet “A specific color on the color wheel” Blue-green Green Yellow-green Blue-violet Blue Each color is a Each different hue. different Color and Visual Aids For unrelated items, use different hues For related items, use different saturations of a single hue > Saturation Full saturation saturation “Amount of Amount color used” color Low saturation Color and Visual Aids For unrelated items, use different hues For related items, use different saturations of a single hue For figures in graphs & charts, use fully saturated hues Animating Power Point Slides Animating Power Point Slides Point­by­Point effects Slide­to­Slide effects Animating objects Too much, too little or just right? Quality Visual Aids . . . Understood in 6 seconds or less Anchor ideas, facts & concepts Easily readable fonts and type sizes Follow text & graphic guidelines Follow the general design principles Use color carefully Resources Resources Cheryl Hamilton, Essentials of Public Speaking, 3rd Ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006 This Water skiing Not This Starting Position 2008 Revenues 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Millions Comparisons Comparisons 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr ...
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